Skip to main content

Full text of "Shigurf Namah i Velaët, Or, Excellent Intelligence Concerning Europe: Being ..."

See other formats


This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 
to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 
to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 
are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other marginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 
publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing this resource, we have taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 

We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attribution The Google "watermark" you see on each file is essential for informing people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 



at |http : //books . google . com/ 



fie 



Digitized by 



Google 



Digitized by VaOOQlC 



Digitized by VaOOQlC 



v^ •• ' 



.l 






Digitized by ^ 



JDigitized by VjOOQIC 



Digitized by V3OOQ IC 




MSm^AETIS^A )ii[©lD)I^3i SS". 



JC-ZZa^-f tiei^ 



('.3idi/7n<Uixe'i- i^p^fr ■ 



digitized by CjOOQIC 



C^'ij i^\}xJj^ 



SHIGURF N^MAH I VELAfiT, 



,AB. 



TRAVELS 



OF 



MIRZA ITESA. MODEEN, 

u 

GREAT BRITAIN AND FRANCE. 



TRANSLATED FROM TRK OaiOINAL PERSIAN MAHUSCRIPT INTO 
HINDOOSTANEB, WITH AN ENGLISH VERSION AND NOTS8| 

BT 

JAMES EDWARD ALEXANDER, Esq-, 

LI£UT.y LATE H.M. 13th LIGHT BRAG00N8, 
Jmi J4ifi*ait* ^f Ae Bo^f Ovard </ the BonovraUe tht GovenMr qf Fcrt Si. Omrg$, 4«. 



WITH A PORTRAIT OF THE MmZAt 

LONDON: M^A^^^^^^^ 
PRINTED FOR PARfiURY, ALLBN, AND CO. 
LEADENHALL STREET. 



MDCCCXXTIL 



Digitized by VaOO^lC 



LONDON: 
TRIMTIB BT /• L. COX, CEEAT QUXIN St%WKl. 



Digitized by 



Google 



;- MOST RESPECTFU|.:C5 DEDICATED 

TO 

HIS EXCELLENCY MAJOR-GENERAL 

SIR THOMAS MUNRO, Bart, & K.C.B., 

GOVERNOR OF MADRAS, 
&c. &c. &c. 

' BT HI8 aAATSrUL AND OBEDIENT SSBTANT, 

THE translator; 



Digitized by 



Google 







Digitized by VjOOQIC 



THE 



TRANSLATOld'S PREFACE, 



When I first commenced the translation of 
the original Persian manuscript of the Shi- 
GURF NoiAH into the language of the Deccan, 
I had not the most, distant intention of ever 
submitting my lucubrations to the public : the 
only object I had in view was, to iumish my- 
self with a useful occupation during my leisure 
hours; for 

** Literato otio quid dulcius ?" 

However, during the progress of my labours, I 
was led to believe that many of the details 
would be found not uninteresting^ not merely 
to those versed in Oriental lore, but also to 
the g^wral reader, when clothed in an Bn^di 
dress. — But my principal intention in publish- 
ing is to furnish a woilc to the Hindoortanee 

tyro. 



Digitized by 



Google 



vi translator's preface. 

tyro, which, from the interest I trust it will 
excite, as exhibiting the impressions made on a 
native of Hindoostan by the manners, customs, 
and superior civilization of the inhabitants of 
Europe, will, I confidently hope, induce him 
to prosecute his studies in that most useful 
language, the acquirement of which is so indis- 
pensably necessary for those who mean to so- 
journ in our Eastern possessions. 

I do not pretend to be deeply skilled either 
in Persian or Hindoostanee. To the fori^er of 
these languages I have not had leisure to pay the 
attention that it deserves, it is probable therefore 
that a very slender critic may easily discover 
many subjects for animadversion in these pages. 
However, I trust that liberal allowance will be 
made for the errors that may be observed in 
the performance of a minor, and that my 
motives, at least, may meet with approbation. 
I have neither been excited by a hope of gain 
nor animated by the prospect of applause: 
my only stimulus in putting forth these trans- 
lations was a hope of being useful. 

There are now, I believe, only two copies 

of 



Digitized by 



Google 



translator's preface. vii 

of the Persian manuscript extant,* and the 
spirit of the author, Itesa Modeen, " the wan- 
derer over the face of the earth,'* hath long 
quitted its clayey tenement. Doubts may arise 
in the minds of many regarding the authenti- 
city of the work, but, I trust they will quickly 
vanish upon perusal. — The language employed, 
the similies made use of, and the general rea- 
soning, will immediately convince any person 
at all acquainted with the manners and habits 
of orientals, that the work is any thing but 
spurious, and that it could not have been com- 
piled by any other than a native of the East. 
Besides,- I have made particular inquiries of 
some of the relations of those gentlemen men- 
tioned in the work, regarding the author, and 
I have been assured that they are aware of 
his having travelled to Europe in company with 
Captain S. (whose name I am prevented from 
giving, from a fear of hurting the feelings of 

near 

* The one which fell mto the hands of the translator 
was purchased by his Moonshee from the head servant of 
the son of Captain S. (under whose charge Itesa Modeen 
went to Europe), after his roaster's decease. 



Digitized by 



Google 



viii translator's preface* 

near relatives of his, now holding high official 
situations in this country, as the author touches 
on some domestic occurrences) : they also state, 
that they had heard that he wrote an account 
of his travels, though they had never seen it. * 
The year in which the author undertook 
the voyage to Europe (1765), was one of pecu* 
liar interest to the Honourable Company, being 
that in which the famous treaty of Ilhabad was 
concluded, by which Lord Clive obtained from 
that ill-advised and unfortunate monarch, the 
Emperor Shah Alum, the commission of 
Diwany, for the countries of Bengal, Behar, 
and Orissa. Those historians who have treated 
on Indian aflairs state, '^that this important 
" business (the acquisition of the Diwany) was 
« settied without hesitation or argument, as 
<< easily as the purchase of aii ass or any other 
** animal, without Envoys or reference either 
<* to tiie King of England or to tiie Company/' 
Now the author's mission to England was sole- 
ly owing to a reference made by Shah Alum 
to his Britannic Majesty, regarding a protect- 
ing force to be stationed, at Ilhabad ; therefore 

this 



Digitized by 



Google 



t9ans];<ator'6 preface* ix 

ttttd. woi4c mfl^ be fomd interesting, noli only 
from tlbe Tdatioa of the author's adventuresfi 
but al$q a^s disclosing soi^e curious particulars 
in. the seeret hjistory of the Compan/s affiiirs. 

It now only remains to t^ke some notice of 
the Hii^oQStanee an4 English trajuslations.-— 
It wo^d seem absurd if I (myself a mere tyro) 
were to endeavour to point put the benefit to 
be derived {rom stqdying Hindoostanee^ the 
gri^js^d popular ^ale^t of India, ^ knowledge 
of "ffhich is th§ sine qud rum to preferment 
io our Eastern dominions. .The vol^minou9 
9iid expellejKit works of that master-pioneer 
of Qiient^ literature^ Dr. B* Gilchrist, will 
su^iently qiake manifest the grea): importance 
whieh is pow 4eservedly a^ttached toi the more 
gener^ acquiremept of this }angijfage* 7^ 
Mlawmg Hindqostaqee tra^islatioi) is ai) at- 
tempt ^t the common dialect used under the 
Madras presidency : the style, I trust, will h^ 
&und to be extremely sipiple, an4 tolerably 
free fi:om the foreign aids of Pef siap erufdijion. 
I should be gpilty of i^justipe, were \ npt 
tp acjloipwledge the gre^t ^ssist^ce \ ^ex\Ytd 

b in 



Digitized by 



Google 



X translator's prbpace. 

in the completion of the above, from my M4)6n^ 
shee, Shumsher Khan, who was formerly in 
the employ of that distinguished linguist^ diplo- 
matist, and soldier. Sir John Malcolm. SUn-^ ^ 
ply to state the fact of his having beeii in the 
service of that officer, is sufficient to mark 
him out as an able scholar, without any further 
encomium of mine. 

In the English version, I have not tied my- 
self down to the literal translation of every 
individual word of the Hindoostanee : far from 
it ; for to have done so would have defeated 
one of the chief intentions of the undertaking. 
I have inerely endeavoured to give the Author's 
meaning. If I had done otherwise and ren- 
dered a literal version, of what use would 
putting forth the Hindoostanee have been to 
the beginner ? He would never have troubled 
himself with applying to his Dictionary, so as 
to impress ' more firmly on his memory the 
meaning of the words which had puzzled him ; 
he would only have turned to the En^sh 
translation for tlie solution of his difficulties; 

Now the present free translation, by givii^ 

the 



Digitized by 



Google 



TRAN$I.ATOB^S PREFACE. xl 

tlm Htndoostanee stiRlent only a general idea 
of.theatoiyf ^ndU perhaps tenant him to direct 
hi« attrition to a closer study of <* the black 
letter ** part of the work. Should the style 
o£any;of the passages seem turgid or broken^ 
the^ imperfections proceeded fronji an endea^ 
vour not to depart from the sense of the ori- 
ginal : those again, which, though they may 
be suited to the gross ideas of Orientals, yet 
would raise a blush on the cheek of the English 
if^der, I have endeavoured to disguise, still 
iiowever adhering to the import of the text. . 

As Oriental writers are not often given to 
observing regularity in their productions, I 
have obviated this defect in our Author by 
transposing several of the chapters. I have 
also taken the liberty of making a few inter- 
polations, to elucidate those passages in which 
the meaning was obscure. . 

In the original there are some tedious details 
relative to the first settlers in Bengal, of the 
English, Dutch, French, and Portuguese na- 
tions. These I have thought proper to omit ; 

also minute descriptions of the construction 
b 2 and 



Digitized by 



Google 



Xii TRAK^ATOR^ PREFACE. 

and different parts of a ship, and a long and 
diy narration of the discovery of America. 
These, instead of iniei^stingihe reader, would 
only serve to tire him. 

In conclusion, I beg to say that it is. witik 
extreme diffidence I submit these translations 
to public scrutiny. However, some indulgence 
may be claimed from the difficulties which 
every one encounters, who prepares for publi- 
cation a work, in this country. I trust, then, 
that the enlightened reader will make allow- 
ances for any inaccuracies he may detect : at 
any rate, 

<« Si non laudes, parce censuris, quedo." 

Bangalore^ Mysore^ 1825. 



Digitized by 



Google 



CONTENTS. 



Introduction , 1 

CHAP. I. 
The original circumstances of the Author, and the 
reason of his going to Europe— He embarks in a 
French ship — An Account of the Compass, Winds, 
&c ,.. S 

CHAP. II. 
The Author arrives at the Island of Maurititis, and 
what occurred there ^ . H 

CHAP. III. 
Of the Cape of Good Hope, and the Island of Ascen- 
sion 22 

CHAP. IV. 
The Author arrives at Nantz, in France, and what hap^ 
pened there^He lands in England SI 

CHAP. V. 
Description of the City of London-^The BuHdingv-^ 
St. James's Park^The Steels and Shops 42 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Xiy CONTENTS. 

CHAP. vr. 

Page 

The Theatre^Circus — Juggling — Vauxhall— The . 
gigantic Woman . . . . • 51 

CHAP. vn. 

An Excursion to Oxford, and some Account of the 
University. 63 

CHAP. vin. 
The Narrative of the Author's Journey to Scotland — 
He arrives in Edinburgh — C^aptain S. and his Family. . 72 

CHAP. IX- 
Some Account of the Highlands 81 

CHAP. X. 
Some Account of the different Countries of Europe — 
Hussurut Eesa, and the Christian ReUgion 92 

CHAP. XI. 
Of the Disbelief of the English in Junab Muhumud's 
prophetical office (on whom be the blessing, Sec) and 
in the noble Koran « 107 

CHAP. XII. 
Religious Controversies. 121 

CHAP. xni. 

The King of England — Army and Navy — Courts 
of Law 135 



Digitized by VaOOQlC 



CONTENTS. XV 

CHAP- XIV. 
The manner in which Children are educated in Eng- 
land — How the English spend their time^The 
East-India Company « 157 

CHAP. XV. 
Of the Food of the English— Of Flowers— Inns-- 
Manner of Travelling*«-Agricultui«— Horses—Wild 
Animals— Dogs , «..,.•••..• 177 

CHAP. XVI. 
Of the Differences that arose between Captain S. and 
the Author — The reasons for has leayiQg EogUiiu)«-* 
He arrives in India — Concludon • 193 



Digitized by 



Google 



Digitized -by VaOOQlC 



INTRODUCTION. 



I If the name of the most merciful God ! 
All due praise be to that Creator who, 
bayiDg vnthdrawn the sous of our first 
parent from the darkness of ignorance, 
presented them with the splendour of wis- 
dom, and in the series of the descendants 
of Adam finally produced (our) Prophet, 
and made apparent the distinction between 
good and evil. Blessing and peace be 
upon that chosen Prophet, his great off- 
spring, and his venerable associates.* 

To those possessed of sagacity it will be 
shewn that I, Shaikh Itesa Modeen^ a pil- 
grim and traveller (and now wearied of 

B traversing 

♦ Alee, Omary Osman, and Abubukur. 



Digitized by 



Google 



2 

traversing countries), the son of Tajoodeen, 
and an inhabitant of the small town of 
Panchnour,* being compelled by destiny, 
journeyed to Europe, and have (now) dis- 
tinctly related at length some of the won- 
ders and curiosities that I saw there ; and 
in order that those who see this book may 
reap the whole advantage of it (without 
labour), I have abridged it, and as a mark 
by which I may be remembered, I have 
placed it in the library of the world. 

* In Bengal. 



Digitized by 



Google 



CHAPTER I 

The original circumstances of the Author, and the reason 

of his going to Europe He embarks in a French ship 

An Account of the Compass, Wmds, &c. 

During the reign of Nouab Jaffer Alee 
Khan (with whom be peace)) being on 
terms of intimacy with Shaikh Suleem 
OoUah Moonshee,* and M irza Mahomed 
Cassim, the Head Moonshee of the de- 
ceased Nouab, I acquired a facility in 
writing and reading Persian. In the dy- 
nasty of Cassim Alee Khan I entered the 
service of Major Park, and was present 
during the campaigns against Usud Zu- 
man Khan and Rajah Beer Bopm. After 
the cessation of hostilities I had an au- 
dience of Hussurut Shah Alum Badshah,^- 
B 2 and 

* Moonshee or Mirza, a secretary, teacher, &c 
t The Great Mogul. 



Digitized by 



Google 



and then came to Calcutta with the Majon 
At this time there were only eight Moon- 
shees in the service of (English) gentlemen. 
After Major Park went to Europe, by his 
recommendation I was employed by Mr. 
Strechy, and for a short time was TuhsiU 
dar* of Cootoobpoor ; after which I served 
under different masters. To be brief, I 
spent the prime of my days in the service 
of Englishmen j and now, in my old age, 
I am subjected to every kind of trouble, 
which is my misfortune. 

la the year of the Hejira llSOf, Lord 
Clive having concluded a treaty between 
the Company and Shoojaud Dowlah,J he 
(the Nouab) took leave of Shah Alum. 
Then liord Clive having caused to be writ- 
ten, in the presence of the Emperor, the 
Commission of Sovereignty, in the name 

of 

* Tax-gatherer, f 1^65, A,D, 

% The Nouab of Gude, who had just been defeated by 
Greneral Camac. 



Digitized by 



Google 



of Nujoomud Dowlah, the son of Meer 
Mahomed Jaffer Alee Khan, and the 
Conimission of Dewany,* in the name of 
the Company, for the Soubah of Bengal, 
Behar and Orissa, wished to take leave. 
Then Shah Alum, with tears in his eyes, 
said, ^^ You have arranged the affairs of 
" the Company according to your own 
•^ wish, but have given yourself no trouble 
" to consolidate my wealth. You do not 
^^ intend keeping an English army near 
" me, during the time I occupy the throne 
" of Delhi; and now you are going away, 
" leaving me in the midst of enemies.** 
Hearing this. Lord Clive and General 
Carnac were much distressed and some- 
what ashamed. They answered: " To 
" retain an English army near you, with- 
" out the orders of the King of England, 
^^ and without first inquiring the pleasure 
" of the Company, is impossible. But 

" now 

* Management of the Revenues. 



Digitized by 



Google 



** now we will state every thing to the 
** English Monarch, and when the order 
" arrives from England, certainly all mat- 
" ters will be (properly) arranged; but 
" until a favourable reply arrives from 
" thence it is advisable that you should 
" remain in Ilhabad. In the mean time 
" General Smyth, who commands (a part 
" of) the English Army, will remain with 
" you with one battalion, and will besub- 
" servient to you, and comply with your 
" wishes in every thing. Besides this, a 
" station for an English force is now esta- 
" blished at Jaunpoor, which is in the 
" vicinity of Ilhabad ; (therefore) when it 
" may be necessary, the whole force will 
" attend you, and now you ought by all 
" means to rest contented (with these ar- 
" rangements)." 

After this, by the concurrence of Nouab 
Mooneeroodowlah and Rajah Shitab Rae,* 

" and 

♦ Two of the Ministers of the Great Mogul. 



Digitized by 



Google 



I 



7 

and according to the wish of Shah Alum^ 
his Lordship undertook to write and des- 
patch a letter to the King of England, the 
purport of which was as follows: " That 
" now, under your favour, I am desirous 
•* of having the aid and assistance of an 
*^ English army, officered by Englishmen, 
*^ and between us friendship and good- 
" will will constantly increase; for we, 
^* being desirous of cultivating your friend- 
" ship, have caused the Commission of 
" Dewany for the Soubah of Bengal, &c. 
" to be made out in the name of the Com- 
" pany, and the officers of your Govera- 
" ment have arranged this with me in a 
" satisfactory manner/' Along with a 
letter of the above tendency, it was deter- 
mined that a present of a lakh of rupees 
in value* should be sent. 

After this Nouab Mooneeroodowlah and 
Rajah Shitab . Rae .came to Calcutta in 

company 

• 100,000 rupees. 



Digitized by 



Google 



8 

company with Lord Clive ; and his Lord- 
ship, in conjunction with them. General 
Carnac, Captain S. and Mr. George Van* 
sittart, but without the knowledge of the 
Members of the Council, having gone to 
the garden of Dumdumah, wrote the letter, 
and having impressed on it the seal of Shah 
Alum Badshah, gave it with the embroi- 
dered cover in charge of Captain S., in 
order that he might proceed as an ambas- 
sador on the part of the Emperor of Hin- 
doostan to the King of England, and having 
presented a.gift of a lakh of rupees in value 
to the English Sovereign, and his object 
having been attained, he might return. 
In this transaction a Moonshee, on the 
part of Shah Alum Badshah, was required 
to accompany Captain S.; and all the 
gentlemen having resolved to send me, 
they presented me, through the medium 
of Mooneeroodowlah, with 4,000 rupees 
(for my expenses) from the Emperor's 

Treasury, 



Digitized by 



Google 



9 

Treasury^ and b^ld put hopes to me of the 
future favour of my Sovereign. Being 
then young, I was pleased with the pros- 
pect of an excursion to :]SurQpe, and em- 
barked with Captain S. 

After a week s voyage, the Captatin told 
me that Lord Clive had taken from him 
Shah Alum's letter, and intimated that the 
present for bis Majesty qf Eiigland had 
not yet arrived from Benares ; and as it 
was not proper to take the mere letter, it 
would be more expedient to wait till the 
^isuing year, when having procured the 
presents along with the letter, and haying 
arrived in Europe, he (Lord Clive) would 
give them in charge to him, and he would 
then present the letter and gift to the King 
of England. Upon hearing this, [ was stu- 
:pified (with amazement), and I uqdoubt^ 
edly imagined that there was some (other) 
cause, and that this was only the pretext> 
and that this troublesome journey would 

c be 



Digitized by 



Google 



10 

be prbdtictive of no ultimate advanlage t^ 
me. If I had known this before I would 
not have undertaken it, but 

** when an action is done, 

** And when the arrow has deviated from the mariCy'^ 

there is no remedy ; artd being unable to 
better tnyself, I rested content with God's 
intentions, and he caused to fall light 
upon rne the labour and hardships of the 
Voyage. 

Gn the 1 1th of Shaban in the year 1 180* 
(in the month of Makh),-!- trusting on the 
mercy of God, I embarked on board ship 
from the town of Higelee, and having bid 
ildieu to Cazee Shaikh Alee Moola, who 
had accompanied me thus far, God only 
knows the grief that assailed my heart at 
being separated froiti my native land and 
relations. After We had weighed anchor 
we reached the seain four days, the foam 
of whose wave gleams at night like lamps. 

I made 

* 1765 A.D. t The Bengallee month. 



Digitized by 



Google 



11 

I made a practice of bathing ^itb salt^ 
water. European doctors are of opinion 
that the sea water and air are healthful, 
and in sickness are advantageous ; as 1 my- 
self experienced, not having been attacked 
(during the voyage) with sickness, with 
the exception of a griping and flux, whicb 
were cured by eating the seed of flea wort* 
The innate property of the iron of 
the compass is similar to that of amber, 
which attracts grass, and this is a sf>e« 
cies of iron that attracts iron. The 
needle of the compass constantly points 
to the North, and by reason of it Euro- 
peans are able navigators ; and they have 
so simplified both nautical and other sci- 
ences, that to them the acquiring of know- 
ledge is not attended with labour. They 
are a very powerful race, by reason of 
their industry and bravery. They have 
facilitated, in like manner, other matters 

c 2 of 

* Piyllii semen. 

Drgitized by VaOOQlC 



12 

of difficiiltj^. This is their peculiar busi- 
ness, and in which they differ from other 
castes. 

During storms they ascend to the top 
and top-gallant masts of the ship, evecr 
although the wind be strong, and occa- 
sionally hang like bats from the ropes of 
the vessel. They have not the least fear in 
their hearts, as I myself witnessed in the 
last voyage. One night, during a stiff gale; 
the three top-gallant masts were carried 
away, and a European on a top-gallant* 
yard fell overboard with it. One of the 
chip's watch, who was standing near the 
gangway, instantly threw hkn a rope^ and 
called out to him to lay hold of it. The 
man, twisting the rope round his hand, 
was hauled on board by the watch, and 
having received no injury, in a short time 
recommenced his work. 

They term that wind " shoartah,*' when, 
after a storm has blown over, a gentle and 

pleasant 



Digitized by 



Google 



IS 

pleasant breeze, like a morning gale, pre- 
vails : from it the seamen, after the labour 
attending a storm, obtain rest. Some- 
times, however, it happens that there is 
no breeze at all, the ship is becalmed, and 
the masts swing from this side to that 
Then the extent of sea resembles glass, 
being transparent and blue; the vessel 
does not advance on her voyage, and 
in some parts (of the ocean) remains sta^* 
tionary a week or a fortnight. The mari- 
ners then sing and amuse themselves, and 
the gentlemen (passengers) enjoy themselves 
in dancing with their ladies. To me all 
this appeared strange ; and becoming des- 
pending, I thought^ if the ship remains 
here a few months we will all be starved^ 
and when shall I be able to return to my 
native country ? 



Digitized by 



Google 



14 



CHAPTER II. 

The Author amves at the island of Mauritius, and what 
occurred there. 

' On the 7th of Shoual I arrived at the 
Mauritius. I paid a visit to a person 
called a Sarang, or an officer of Lascars, 
and to seven Musselmans, who were natives 
of Hooghly, Bulwar, Umbo, &;c., and 
who had come (together) to pray at the 
feast.* I observed that every man had a 
wife and children, and from having lived 
there some time they had no inclination to 
return to they: own country. They had 
married female slaves of the French, and 
had become their servants, consequently 
their masters would not allow them to leave. 
I was greatly rejoiced at seeing my country- 
men, and through their means, during the 

sixteen 

* After the fast of Ramazan » 



Digitized by 



Google 



15 

sixt^n days that I remained there, I was 
comfortably lodged. 

The island of Mauritius is seventy-five 
coss* in breadth. Towards the centre 
there are bills, woods, and desolate tracts; 
but on the east side two or three thousand 
begahs-f- of land are cultivated, where also 
is a Ismail city 4 The French factory and 
fort iare ^constructed of stone, and are sur- 
bounded by gardens. Every respectable 
Frenchman having selected for himself a 
quarter of a coss of land, surrounds it with 
a hedge and cultivates it. For agricultural 
purposes they have (each) fifty or a hun- 
dred male and female slaves. These slaves, 
in their youth and nonage, are brought 
from Madagascar and Malabar : they are 
purchased at a high price (fifty or sixty 
rupees each) from the ships employed in the 

slave- 

* A coss is equal to two miles, generally. 

f A begah, in Bengal> equal to 1,555 square yards. 

J: Port Louis. 



Digitized by 



Google 



16 

slave-trade, and are employed in cultiraiU 
ing. In this island, besides Indian corn, 
ratah, dham, wheat, and cholum, there 
are no other kinds of grain. Those who 
are wealthy live upon fine wheat and rice, 
which are imported from Bengal and other 
countries ; the poor people and sfaves are 
fed upon Indian corn, &c. They also pre- 
pare and eat a species of plant which 
grows there, the root of which resembles a 
radish ; of this flour and bread are made. 
I one day ate a little of this breads and it 
had neither a sour, sweet, nor salt tast^. 

In the bazar, by means of the Lascars, 
I procured mangoes,* water-melons, cu- 
cumbers, musk-melons, and the other 
varieties of fruits peculiar to the Bengal 
month Jet. The weight of a mangoe was 
a quarter of a seer,*!- and some half a seer, 
and not fibrous, but of an excellent flavour: 

the 

^ The fruit of the Maugifira Indica. 

f A seer is generally equal to two pounds. 



Digitized by 



Google 



17 

the colour of the mangoes was green out^ 
side and blue inside. In Bengal this spe- 
cies of mangoe is scarce. Amongst the 
hills the cauzee nimboo and red pepper 
grow spontaneously : they are brought in 
from the jungles by the poor inhabitants, 
who sell them in the bazar. 

Here copper money and cowries are not 
current; but there is a paper currency, 
from one hundred or two hundred rupees 
down to eight and four annas. Notes are 
the medium in purchases and sales. The 
cold is great, and the earth is arenaceous, 
therefore a wall of mud and brick is not 
permanent. The houses arfe constructed 
of wood; the verandah of the house is 
likewise wooden. Wheels are placed below 
the floor, by which the house is elevated 
one or two cubits from the ground. The 
grass not being adapted for thatching, they 
fix with iron nails pieces of wood on the 
roof, after the manner of tiles, the one 

D over 



Digitized by 



Google 



18 

over the other, and the smallest quantity 
of rain-water does not percolate through, 
A house does not stand in need of repairs 
till after 50 or 100 years- The dwelling 
being on wheels, when they wish they use 
it like a carriage, and convey it far or near, 
even to the distance of one or two coss. 

Around the whole of this island, on ac- 
count of the dangers, there is no anchorage 
for vessels, except near the town ; in the 
passage to which, for the distance /of three 
coss, there is considerable danger, and it 
is difficult for ships to near the shore, also 
for unpractised navigators to pa^s and. re- 
pass there. On this account, when for 
many years there was war between the 
French and English, the English, although 
they got possession of all the other French 
islands, yet were unable to take this one* 

Jt is said, that when this island was inha^ 
bited by the Portuguese, rock snakes, serr 
pents, and scorpions were so numerous, 

that 



Digitized by 



Google 



J9 

that the people were unable to remain. 
It was then handed over to the French,* 
when their priests, by a kind of necro- 
mancy, having caught the snakes, scor- 
pions, &c., placed them in boats, took* 
them a distance of two or three go9A 
and threw them into the sea : from that 
time, snakes, scorpions, &c. have been 
unknown in the island. God knows, how- 
ever, how far this is true. Fish are abun- 
dant; the inhabitants catch them with 
hooks and nets ; but I did not observe any 
(exactly) like the Bengal fish, yet a few 
resemble the crowfish, and others in colour 
are like the ierinpotha^ but their mouth 
was wide and broad ; there are also fish 
similar to the bheda and hhugut. I relished 
(from amongst all the fish) the ponthaj 
whose colour is white with red spots : both 
the colour was beautiful and. the taste 
excellent. I saw, likewise, other fish of 
D 2 good 



♦ In 1720. 



Digitized by 



Google 



20 

good flavour, resembling bonalee and mocr 
both with and without scales. 

The second day after we landed on the 
island rain and wind set in, and for three 
or four days a great istorm raged. The 
rain fell in torrents, and two French ships, 
laden with merchandize, and each riding 
with a couple of anchors, from the violence 
of the gale dragged their anchors, and 
were wrecked among the breakers. Our 
ship, also, when approaching the breakers, 
was run foul of by a Spanish man-of-war ; 
but by the mercy of God and the e:(ertiQn» 
of our brave hands we returned in safety (to 
our anchorage). The outer plank of the 
vessel having received some injury, she 
leaked a little ; both the boats; on bo^rd 
were stove in, and their planks shivered tq 
pieces.. For sixteen days we rentained 
there to repair the damage the ship had 
sustained. In this storm, many vessels wejre 
wrecked and injured, (but) after (this) till 

we 



Digitized by 



Google 



21 

we arrived in Europe we did not experi- 
ence such a severe gale, neither did any 
misfortune befall us. Captain S. and Mr. 
Peacock,* in a sportive and joking man- 
ner, said to me, ** Owing to your prosper- 
" ous foot*!* andjyour worth, there is no 
" fear (of danger)." I replied, " From an 
^^ impure creature like me, and from my. 
^^ poor foot, what advantage is there? 
*^ But God, in his providencet hath 
^^ watched over his servants^ and hath 
^^ poreaerved his slaves' field of hope fre»h 
" and verdant/' 

* Another passenger. 

f Lucky feet, and the influence of the evil eye, are 
firmly believed in, both by Musselmans and Hindoos. 



Digitized by V3OOQIC 



22 



CHAPTER III. 

Of the Cape of Good Hope^ and the Island of Ascension. 

After we bad weighed anchor our- 
course was south-west. When we neared 
the Cape of Good Hope we were unable- 
to weather it on account of an adverse 
wind, and retrograded five hundred coss: 
For twenty-five days the wind blew from 
the same quarter. When it abated a little- 
we doubled the Cape with great difficulty. 
For two weeks we lay at anchor at Cape 
(town). 

The Cape itself is a promontory of the 
country of Hubsh.* The country round 
the Cape is under the dominion of the Dutch, 
who have built near the sea a beautiful city, 
and there planted diflFerent varieties of Eu- 
ropean and Indian trees, such as the vine, 

apple, 

* Black. 



Digitized by 



Google 



23 

apple, nashputee, quince, pear, bandana^ 
mangoe, and plantain. The inhabitants 
plant cypress and box trees in their gar- 
dens and along the walks, and are great 
horticuIturalists« Before the Dutch settled 
at the Cape it was a wilderness, and the 
Hottentots and Bushmen of the country 
were like the caste of Tumblers in India : 
they carried their houses along with them ; 
and men, women, and children, to the 
number of seven or eight thousand, with 
horses, sh6ep, and cattle (were in the habit) 
of coqfiing to the Cape from another coun- 
try, and having remained there for three 
or four years, afterwards moved off in 
another direction. The clothing (of the 
Hottentots) is undressed skins, and their 
diet raw and half-raw meat, also milk^ 
mutton^ and wild fruits. They are of a 
good stature and corpulent, and are so 
swift and active in tiie chase, that they 
catch with ease wild boars and deer. They 

dig 



Digitized by 



Google 



24 

dig deep pits in the elephants' haunts^ 
and when these animals come in herds 
from the jungles and hills to graze, they 
make a great noise with musketry, and 
drive them in the direction of the pits, 
into which they fall, and in a few days 
they die for want of food and water, and 
the Hottentots dispose of the ivory tusks 
to merchants. 

The Dutch purchase men, women, and 
children in Bengal. I visited some of 
these slaves, and although they had for- 
gotten the Hindee and Bengalee languages, 
yet we were able to converse by signs. 
They used to fish for me. 

The island of Ascension is situated to 
the north-west of the Cape, and we ar- 
rived there after a month's voyage. This 
island is uninhabited. Fish are plentiful 
here. Amongst them there was a small 
species resembling the crow-fish: the mouth 
is gaping, and the body covered with 

scales 



Digitized by 



Google 



25 

scales of a black colour ; they are' of ex- 
cellent flavour and in great numbers. The 
seamen took them with hook^. 

Here the turtle is of great size, and 
weighs twenty mauijds,* or even more. 
On moonlight nights, when they repair to 
the sandy beach of the island to deposit 
their eggs, the seamen conceal themselvea 
^nd lie in wait for them at some distance. 
When the turtle lands the people rush for- 
ward, seize him behind, and overturn him. 
In this way, in one night, we caught forty 
•or fifty, and the flesh and eggs were a great 
treat to the crew. A turtle served for a 
day's consumption. Water fowl (of all 
sorts) abound here, and birds resenobling 
the kulung are numerous ; but they do not 
build nests, for there are neither trees nor 
grass here; they live in pair» on the tops 
of hills, rocks, and eminences. I observed 
that they were not afraid of manj for whea 

E the 

* A maund is equal to twelve seers, or twenty-four pounds^ 



Digitized by 



Google 



26 

the sailors attempted to seize them they 
merely screamed, and struck with their 
beaks at the hands of the men who caught 
them. 

The men gave me two birds of the goose 
species, which I carried on board, and iny 
servant, Muhumud Muckeem, was well 
pleased at seeing them. Having killed 
them, he cleaned and purified them, and 
dressed them in ghee* and with hot and 
cold spices ; but the meat was tough, and 
an unpleasant stench could not be got rid 
of. At last we threw the whole dish into 
the sea: but the Europeans ate them, 
having first grilled them on the fire. Euro- 
peans, particularly the French caste, are 
certainly very dirty feeders. 

The ocean is full of wonders. If I chose 
to write of them all it would require a se- 
parate volume, therefore a short account 
will suffice. 

1st. The 

♦ Clarified butter. 



Digitized by 



Google 



27 

1st. The flying fish in appearance re- 
sembles thedewa fish of this country; it is 
three fingers in length, and on the sides 
there are a couple of wings, which are four 
fingers long, similar to a spider's web, and 
of a finer texture than silk paper. As long 
as the wing of the fish remains moist they 
have the power of flying : when the wing 
becomes dry from the sun and wind acting 
upon it, the fish falls into the sea or upon 
the vessel. Seamen place a small quantity 
of opium in the belly of this fish, carefully 
preserve it, and dispose of it at a high price 
in India and other countries. The doctors 
of Hindoostan say that it is a powerful 
stimulant, and from eating it an impotent 
person recovers his lost powers. The sand- 
fish likewise possesses this property. 

2d. The sea mugur,* or in English the 

whale ; in bulk it is equal to two full- 

E 2 grown 

* Mugur is commonly translated alligator, here it means 
a cetaceous animal. 



Digitized by 



Google 



^8 

grown elephants, and evien larger: its 
jaws, also, are like those of an elephant. 
Its nostrils are on the crown of the head. 
In the act of inspiration water gets into 
its throat, and when it expirates the water 
is thrown, out and rises like a fountain, 
and in height equal to that of a palmyra 
tree, and with a. mighty noise, so as to be 
heard at the distance of a mile. 

In expectation of getting something to 
eat, and in order to see the ship, one of 
them approached us. At one tiipe it 
dived, and at another rose above the sur- 
face. If uponits emersion it had happened 
to strike the vessel, even slightly, perhaps 
she would have been bilged. When I saw 
it I was greatly alarmed, and was afraid 
of its near approach. 

3d. The mermaid is a beautiful woman 
from the head to the waist, with two 
breasts, a mouth like a flower, black 
tresses, dark eyes, of a good stature, with 

eyebrows 



Digitized by 



Google 



29 

eyebrows like a bow. On seeing her coun- 
tenance the hearts of lovers are wounded, 
and those who are inexperienced in affairs 
of the heart are confined in the snare of 
her enticements. Beneath her waist half 
the limbs and lower parts resemble a fish 
with a forked tail. The effigy of this ani- 
mal is placed on the stems and sterns of 
ships. These extraordinary beings are 
seen by mariners near dangerous parts of 
the ocean, and when they appear it is a 
bad omen. May God in his mercy prevent 
any one from seeing its countenance, for 
it is a kind of genii. When it sits upright 
in the water to the waist and shews its face, 
the sailors viewing its countenance lose 
their senses. It then calls on one of them 
by name. The individual called upon, on 
hearing its voice, becomes greatly agitated, 
and prepares to go upon hearing the call 
repeated : at the third summons he leaps 

into 



Digitized by 



Google 



30 

into the sea, and is lost to the view of be- 
holders. They say that if that person were 
to be bound with a chain of iron even that 
could not detain him. 



Digitized by 



Google 



31 



CHAPTER IV. 

The author arrives at Nantz, in France, and what happened 
there He lands in England. 

When we bad approached within one 
or two coss of the shore, at Nantz, a town 
in France, we let go the anchor and fired 
a gun : a pilot-boat then put off to us, 
and the pilot brought us to the wharf of 
the French Company. 

Then the poor people who dealt in every 
commodity came and offered us for sale 
different kinds of fruit, bread, and fresh 
butter. The sailors, who had not seen this 
fare for six montlis, regaled themselves on 
it, and were greatly rejoiced at seeing their 
native land. I myself for six months had 
(hardly) seen any thing besides the sea 
and sky, and like a wild animal confined 
in the cage of the ship was continually 

numbering 



Digitized by 



Google 



32 

numbering the planks, and thought that 
there were perhaps no bounds to the ocean* 
In short, the sight of the land and the 
buildings infused a new life into my frame. 

I thought it strange that the lower or- 
ders of French, who (I suppose) were un- 
able to purchase (leathern) shoes, wore 
wooden ones, in which they walked along 
in a ludicrous and whimsical mannen In 
England, though there are (many) poor 
people, yet they do not appear abroad 
without (leathern) boots or shoes. Captain 
S» and Mr. Peacock, seeing the (miserable) 
condition of these people, laughed, and 
said : " These are very wretched people, 
" but it is all owing to their own indo- 
" lence, for they are not industrious like 
" the English/' 

When we came alongside the custom^ 
house, the custom-house officers came on 
board, and stationed sentinels, because 
it is an edict of the French king that no. 

private 



Digitized by 



Google 



33 

private person (clandestinely) shall bring 
or dispose of nierchandize : if any one does 
so, the goods are seized and a penalty in- 
flicted. Under these circumstancesi the 
mates, a doctor, and a clergyman, who 
had brought some pieces of cloth from 
Bengal, concealed them, like thieves, in 
their pockets, tied them round their necks, 
rolled them round their waists, and went 
to their own houses. 

Captain S. and Mr. Peacock having dis- 
embarked, went in search of a hired lodg- 
ing, and I remained two or three days on 
board. These gentlemen took a great 
quantity of cloth and other things with 
them, for the French (custom-house) offi- 
cers do not molest Englishmen and people 
of other nations, but allow them to pass 
unexamined. 

I remained in Nantz for sixteen days, 

after which Captain S. and Mr. Peacock 

set out post in a carriage for England, and 

F I, 



Digitized by 



Google 



34 

I, embarking on board a sloop with, the 
baggage that was left behind, after a week's 
voyage arrived at Calais. I remained 
there a fortnight, and went about seeing 
the sights in the town. The country 
people build the walls of their habitations 
of stone and plaster ; and having finished 
(the wood work) of the roof of the house, 
they place upon it earthen tiles. In 
Europe there are no bamboos; for this 
reason the roof is made with planks. The 
food of the lower classes consists of broth 
and barley bread : their dress is of thick 
woollen, or cloth made from the hemp 
plant, of which also ropes aire spun. Only 
a few of the people wear (leathern) shoes 
and boots ; the generality do not. 

The French assert that the English are 
instructed by them in music and horse- 
manship, for the wealthy among the 
English send their sons and daughters to 
the schodls in France ; in consequence of 

which. 



* Digitized by Google 



35 

which, aay they, th& English are oaw skilled 
in the arts and sciences. In former times 
they had neither the abilities nor tUe skill 
which they now possess, and were ignorant; 
like the generality of Hindoostanees : 
however they allow that they are brave 
soldiers. The lower classes of Engli^ (say 
they) do not go to foreign countries to 
serve or get employment ; why ? < because 
they are a stupid race and slow at acquire 
ing knowledge, therefore even if they did 
go to other countries, no person would 
employ them, consequently they would 
be reduced to misery for want of food and 
clothes. But the French caste are skilled 
in all the arts and sciences, and wherever 
they go they ingratiate themselves with 
strangers, and acquire dignity and honour 
In short, I clearly perceived that the whole 
conversation of the French was an attempt 
to display their own superiority, and without 
any good reason they abused other castes. 
F 2 After 



Digitized by 



Google 



36 

After leaving Calais I arrived in Eng- 
land in one day, at the small sea-port of 
Dover, The custom-house officers came 
on board the packet to examine us, and 
in the trunk of Mr. Peacock's wife, who 
was of the caste of black Portuguese, 
they discovered two pieces of moosujhur,* 
and one piece of kumkhoab;-f- they 
therefore determined to punish her. I 
disembarked and put up at an inn, and 
having written a letter concerning all that 
had happened to me, I despatched it by 
post to Captain S., then in London. 

I was constantly in the habit of viewing 
the sights both in the city and neigh- 
bourhood ; and the English, who had never 
before seen a man of Hindoostan dressed 
in the manner I was, accounted me a 
great curiosity. They came to me in 

crowds 

* A kmd of silk cloth. 

t Commonly pronounced kincob, silk worked with gold 
or silver flowers. 



Digitized by 



Google 



37 

crowds, and because I was a foreigner 
they were very kind to me. The great and 
small of the town shewed me that they 
were friendly and favourably disposed 
towards me, as if I had been an old ac- 
quaintance: I was comforted by their 
kindness and humanity, and care was ba- 
nished from my souL 

One day some people took me along 
with them to the assembly-room, where 
were ladies and gentlemen and a band of 
music. As soon as we arrived there, a stop 
was put to the dancing and music, and 
they all began to stare at me, and having 
examined my robe, turban, shawl, and 
other parts of my costume, they thought 
that it was a dress for dancing or acting 
in. I endeavoured to persuade them to 
the contrary, but they would not believe 
me ; and every one in the assembly con- 
tinued to gaze at my dress and appear- 
ance, and I continued observing their 

excellent 



Digitized by 



Google 



38 

excelleot eDtertainment : and it is singular 
that ly who went to see. a spectacle, 
became myself a sight to others. In that 
wisdom-deceiving assembly, the fairies^ 
seeing the Hoorees* that were there met, 
drew over their faces the veil of shaine ; 
and the boys of Paradise viewing their 
sun-like faces, being put out of counte«^ 
nance,^ hung down their heads. I myself, 
losing my senses, could see no di£ference 
between the brightness of a lamp and the 
splendour of their beauty. I stood like a 
staUie in one spot, and reflecting on the 
excelling power of the Almighty, I praised 
the Lord, and recited this distich : 

« Out of dust he produces a (living) bo^» 
<< And from seed makes a fair &ce/' 

Captain S. and Mr. Peacock having 
come down from London in order to re- 
cover their effects, placed me along with 
Muhumud Muckeem in a carriage ; and 

after 

.* Black-eyed nymphs of Paradise. 



Digitized by 



Google 



39 

after our arrival in London, and in the 
neighbourhood 6f Go vent Garden, in Cap- 
tain S/s brother's house, we rested our- 
selves after the hardships of the voyage. 

I was highly pleased with London, and 
the English likewise were much gratified 
at seeing u)e« Notwithstanding I was 
neither a man of science nor abilities, yet 
they treated me kindly. Truly, I am 
unable to praise sufficiently the worth and 
virtues of Europeans, for they esteem a 
traveller or an inhabitant of a foreign 
country dearer to them than their own life, 
and take great pains to win the confidence 
of strangens, and greatly patronized me. 

Before I went to England the English 
had never seen a moonshee dressed in the 
manner I was, only Chatgaon and Juhan- 
geer Nuggur Lascars,* the people were 
(therefore) unacquainted with the manners 
and conduct of a Hindoostanee : on this 

account 

* Htndoottanee seamen. 



Digitized by 



Google 



40 

account I was reckoned a gr«it man of 
• Bengal, if not brother to some nouab or 
other, and people came from far and near 
to visit me. Whenever I attempted to go 
abroad, crowds accompanied me, and the 
people in the houses of the bazars thrust 
their heads out of the windows and gazed 
at me with wonder. The children and 
boys took me for a black devil, and being 
afraid kept at a distance from me. 

At the time I arrived in London it was 
the hot season, and I used to dress in my 
jamah,* with my turban on my head, a 
sash tied round my waist, and a dagger in 
my belt, and went abroad after the manner 
of a man of Hindoostan. Many people 
were much pleased with my costume, and 
a few thought it was the dress of the 
Harem and of delicate females. After 
two or three months had passed in this 
way every one entered into friendship with 

me, 

* A long gannent. 



Digitized by 



Google 



41 

me^ and the fear which the common peo- 
ple had of me all vanished : they then 
approached m^, and the ladies of the 
bazar, smiling, said, ^^ come, my dear, and 
kiss me/' 



Digitized by 



Google 



42 



CHAirrER V. 

A Deflcriptionof the City of London The Buildings. 

St. James's Park Hie StreeU and i 



What can 1 say in praise of the City of 
London? for on the whole face of the 
earth there is no other so large or so beaiu- 
tiful. My tongue wants ability to describe 
in a fitting manner the excellence of that 
city. 

A river flows through the midst of it, 
upon which is seated the city fort, which 
is built of black stone aifd is very strong : 
it is called the Tower. In it are numerous 
armouries, and 1 saw there an immense 
number of cannon of brass and gun-metal, 
both plain and ornamented. One gun is 
very large : in length it is sixteen cubits, 
and its diameter is such, that if a person 
sits down on one side of it, he will not be 

able 



Digitized by 



Google 



43 

abl&to see a person sitting on the oth^r 
side. The muzzle is so wide that a mid- 
dling-sijised tailor can sit in it and work, 
A woman with child of a bastard lived for 
a year in> this gun and bore the child ; the 
seducer came at night and brought meat 
and drink for her, and no other person 
knew of it. 

In London, edifices of brick are nume- 
rous; but I observed that the churches, 
both old and new, were generally con- 
structed of stone. 

Amongst tfaem the cathedral of St. 
Paul's is celebrated for its size and beauty, 
and is deserving of being visited. My 
tongue is unable to speak its praises. 
When I bad entered the edifice and the 
gallery. Captain S. (also) entering upon 
the gallery, said in a whisper, " Moonshee, 
" what are you about ?*' I was then stand- 
ing at the distance of forty cubits from 
him, and his voice fell distinctly on my 
G 2 ear; 



Digitized by 



Google 



44 

ear; wd I replied, " I am viewing the 
" s^jefstacle;'' and my answer likewise was 
plainly heard by the Captain on the other 
«de, iProia.^. gallery, ascending by the 
oilter $t^m of the building, I reached the 
^PP^i* t^Ft 0f the oupola, from whence 
tpn qr twelve qoss of the plain below fell 
under my view : then all the buildings of 
five and $§vea stories appeared in my eye 
tp b^ very »a(ia)I, and the people^ horses, 
and sheep 9e€^!ned to be the size of cats; 
Truly it was a heart-opening and a pleasure^ 
iQspir^pg f«^l^^« There are no ^tooe bikild- 
iQgs, eitt^er of the strength, hdight, or si^ 
of this in Hindoofi^tan, with the exception 
of a f^w of the dQmes of Bejapoor.* 

Westminster Abbey w^. built by a king 
of Penmark 2 it w very anicienit, but even 
nc^w it appear fi^em* In it there are sta<^ 

tues 

* The loausoleum <^ Sultan MaliinoQd Shab, which I 
have seen, is surmounted by an immense cupola, and is 
equal in height t6 St. Paul's; in it there is also an excellent 
whispering gallery. — T. 



Digitized by 



Google 



45 

twes which were executed' by the first 
si$alptar9% One of them is the figure, of a 
beautiful female: itisof marble, and three 
and a half cubits in height; it stands in 
the centre of the edifice^ on a white slab* 
From a distance it seems to be a woman 
standing with a sheet thrown over her 
head. The lioeaments, the curling of the 
tresses, and folds of the skirt and veil^ 
were all iguii^hed to a nicety. When i 
yiewed it from a short distance^ I knew 
not whether it was a living or an inanimate 
fans; but upcHi approaching it I was 
greatly amazed at seeing so beautiful a 
statue* Similar to this one I saw many 
other statues and beautiful fwrns, and 
from b^holdisg them my heart was glad- 
deoed. 

The King^s palace externally is neitfaer 
beautiful nor magnificent: the ext^or 
milkk aie uiot even plastered, and it re- 
sembles 



Digitized by 



Google 



46 

sembles the houses of the merchants; but 
the residence of the Queen is very hand^ 
some. I was informed that the interior of 
the King's Palace is elegant and chaste, 
as the suites of rooms and the buildings of 
the harem, which are painted of a verdi- 
gris colour. 

The generality of the houses in London 
are of three and five stories. In this 
country (Bengal) the rooms are lofty, in 
order that there may be a current of air 
in hot weather ; but in consequence of the 
cold and frost in Europe, they are low. 
The floors are wooden, the ceilings are 
painted white, and the walls are covered 
with coloured paper. When the wind 
blows the walls of the houses shake, and 
strangers are afraid of their falling ; but . 
there js no cause for fear, though I myself 
was alarmed. 

Near the Queen's Palace there is a park, 

in 



Digitized 



by Google 



47 

in which deer are kept : the walks on both 
sides are lined with shady walnut-tre^. 
On Sunday, men, women, and youths, 
pocw and rich, travellers and natives, resort 
here* This park enlivens the heart, and 
people overcome with sorrow, repairing 
thither, are entertained in a heavenly man- 
ner ; and grieved hearts, from seeing that 
place of amusement, are gladdened against 
their will. On every side females with silver 
forms, resembling peacocks^ walk about, 
and at every corner fairy-faced ravishers 
of hearts move with a thousand blandish- 
ments and coquetries ; the plain of the 
earth becomes a paradise from their res- 
plendent foreheads, and heaven (itself) 
hangs down its head for shame at seeing 
the beauty of the loves. There lovers meet 
their fairy-resembling sweethearts: they 
attain their end without fear of the cutwal* 

or 

* The chief officer of police of a dty or town. 



Digitized by 



Google 



48 

or of rivals, and gallants obtain a sight of 
rosy cheeks without restraint. When I 
viewed this heavenly place I involuntarily 
exclaimed : 

^ If there's a heayeii on the face of the earth, 
** ItBherel itNkherel his hereT* 

The streets of the city are spacious. On 
both sides are' houses, three and five stories 
in height, which are uniform, resembling 
the dalcntta barracks. They are neither 
crooked nor deviate from a straight line, 
therefore strangers and ignorant people 
are apt to commit mistakes. To prevent 
errors, the owner of a house causes his 
name to be engraved on a brass plate 

which 

* ** Agvar firdos be rooe zumeen ust— humeen ust, hu- 
meenusty humeri ust" 

And the love that is o'er, in expiring gives birth 
To a new one, as warm, as unequalled in bliss ; 

An^ oh I if there be an Elysium on earthy 
It is this I it is this I 

MOORB. 



Digitized by 



Google 



49 

which is affixed on the upper part of the 
outer-door. Arlizans and tradespeople 
have the signs of their occupations painted 
on a board which is attached to their doors : 
as, for instance, if it be a shoe-maker, 
there is the figure of a shoe ; if a baker, 
the picture of a loaf; if a fruiterer, differ- 
ent kinds of fruit. I was told that in the 
same way the residences of the cyprians 
are distinguished : of this, however, more 
hereafter. 

The people of condition inhabit the first 
and second floors of the houses : the fourth 
floor is appropriated to servants; the 
ground floor is rented as a shop. In the 
shops are glass-cases, in which the different 
articles are properly arranged. 

The streets are paved with stone, and 
their breadth is such that three carriages 
are able to pass one another: besides, for 
foot passengers, on both sides x)f the streets 

H there 



Digitized by 



Google 



50 

there is a space of two yards and a half in 
width. Horsemen and quadrupeds are 
not permitted to go upon the pavement^ 
which is set apart for foot passengers and 
gown-dressed ladies* 



Digitized by 



Google 



51 



CHAPTER VI. 

The Theatre Circus Juggling Vauxhall 

The gigantic Woman. 

In Europe the manner in which plays 
are acted, and balls and musical parties 
conducted, is (entirely) diflferent from 
that of Hindoostan. The people of this 
country (India) send for the singers to their 
own houses, where they view the enter- 
tainments, and squander away a large sum 
of money for one night*s (amusement). In 
Europe it is usual for a few individuals to 
enter into partnership, (or) as it is called 
in English, a company. They fit up a 
house, in which dancing-girls, skilful 
musicians, singers, and actors, are engaged 
to perform. The audience consists of from 
three to four thousand people. The lower 
orders, who sit above all, give one shilling, 
H 2 equal 



Digitized by 



Google 



52 

equal in value to half a rupee ; the middle 
classes, who sit lowest of all, a rupee and 
a half; and the great folks and noblemen, 
who sit (round) the middle of the house, 
give two rupees and a half. Separate 
rooms (boxes) are allotted for them. The 
place where the King sits is in front of 
the dancers* His Majesty sits there along 
with one or two of the Princes, and these 
give each pn'ashrufee.* Now it is to be 
understood, that a . poor man for eight 
antias,-f:and a rich individual for rwo rupees 
and a half, see a spectacle which is fit for 
Royalty itself, arid which the people of 
ihk country have not even seen in their 
dreams. In one , night the dancers and 
musicians collect five or six thousand 
rupees, which cover the expenses, and the 
audience is sufificiently aniused. 

It 

* A gold coin. . Hie Calcutta ashrufee is equal in value 
to£Lll8.8d. 

f Sixteen annas make a rupee. 



Digitized by 



Google 



53. 

. It is the aim of this caste to acconiplisb 
great undertakings at little expense. In 
Hindoo^tan luxurious young men, for see- 
ing a nauch,* squander away, in one night, 
one or two hundred rupees ; and lakhs of 
rupees of patrimony, which they may sue-* 
ceed to> in a short time take wing. 

How can I describe the dances, the 
melodious sound of violins and guitars, 
and the interesting stories which I heard, 
and (all the things) which I saw ? My pen 
lacks ability to write even a short pane- 
gyric. 

From amongst all the spectacles, that 
of the curtains of seven colours (the scenes) 
is exceedingly wonderful, for every instant 
anew painting is exhibited. Then people, 
disguised like angels and fairies, the one 
moment come upon the stage and dance, 
and the next vanish from the sight. There 
is also a roan with a black face, who is a 

kind 

♦ A dance. 



Digitized by 



Google 



54 

kind of devil, and called Harlequin : at 
one time he appears, and at another time 
hides himself, and sometimes attaches him- 
self to the others, and taking the hands 
of the dancing-girls, he dances with them ; 
he then scampers off, and taking a leap, 
he jumps through a window. At seeing 
this sport I laughed very heartily. In a 
word, the (whole) entertainment is excel- 
lent and wonderful. 

Talking is not permitted in the Theatre : 
although the crowd is great, yet there is 
neither noise nor clamour. When a pleas- 
ing story or adventure is heard or witnessed, 
and they wish to express their approbation, 
instead of saying shabash /* or wah I wah I-f 
they beat the floor with their feet, or they 
clap their hands, by which they signify 
their approval. 

I saw many plays performed. From 
amongst them is the (following) story, on 

which 

♦ Excellent 1 f Bravo! Bravo I 



Digitized by 



Google 



55 

which a play is (founded), and which I saw 
meted. A certain Captain was married, 
and without the knowledge of his spouse 
he likewise wedded another woman. When 
his first wife became acquainted with this 
circumstance she raised a great clamour, 
and in a mighty rage laid her complaint 
before a court of justice. In the law-books 
of this caste it is ordained, that bigamy 
being a very serious offence, the punish- 
ment is death. The judges, therefore, 
sentenced the Captain to be executed. 
Then the prosecutrix, who for many years 
had been affectionately attached to her 
husband, grew ashamed of having com- 
plained, cried exceedingly, and resolved 
upon dying, and, in tears, accompanied 
her criminal husband to the place of exe- 
cution, and went along beating her head 
and breast. The other female likewise, 
with her heart on fire, walked on the other 
side of the man, who walked between the 

two 



Digitized by 



Google 



56 

two, and like a corpse procejeded on the 
joad of death. At the place (of executioa) 
there was so much grief (displayed) that I 
jam unable to describe it. In the end, the 
judges, by the King's recommendation, 
pardoned the Captain's crime. 

The Circus is a house where a horseman 

resides, who is unrivalled in his profession, 

and in riding surpasses Sham^ and Eos- 

tum.-f* The Circus is a favourite resort : 

those who go there give each a shilling (for 

.admittance). The horseman first brings 

.forward a horse, which he animates by the 

application of the whip. During the time 

the horse is galloping he takes a leap^ and 

isprings upon his back and stands upright, 

then stands on one leg and turns round, 

the horse all the time galloping swiftly in 

a circle. This accomplished rider then 

dances oo the horse's back, and wheels 

round. 

* A name of the Hindoo god Krishna, 
f One of the twelve champions of Persia. 



Digitized by 



Google 



57 

round. Sometimes he lies at length on its 
back, at other times he stands erect ; at 
one moment he stoops down, at another, 
placing his head on the saddle, he throws 
his heels in the air, and beats time with 
his feet; and sometimes lifting his hands 
from the saddle he claps them, and keeps 
time with both hands and feet: again, 
placing both hands on the saddle, he 
tumbles over. But the most amusing 
part of the exhibition is this : though the 
money in Europe is very small, yet he 
seizes (a piece) with his lips, and lifts it 
from the ground. Now the chabook souars* 
of Hindoostan take*' up pieces of money 
with the hand, which is nothing compared 
with this. After this feat he produces a 
second horse, and causes the two to gallop 
side by side, and dances and turns round, 
sometimes on the one and sometimes on 
the other. Afterwards a third horse is 

I brought 

♦ Horse-breakers. 



Digitized by 



Google 



58 

l^rpught Outi an4 hq dances, on it in ^be 
aameiway: he then leaps, over the t)|i^ 
hpiises from onf^ side, apd alighte Qfh ^k^ 
ground,, on Jjia feet, on the othec. At; tk^ 
all whp were present were amazef). 

He ni^^t placed a bar and caused a^hpii^ 
to leap oTer it. He then.^lev^ted the Iwr^: 
and qpon attempting to take the (high^fj]^ 
Ipap the horse grazed the bar with one of 
ijis hind fe^t, and both horse and rider felji; 
tp^thts ground* The fall was a severe oqj?^ 
but the horseman accounted it a tri^i. 
and springing up instantly he quiqkly/reHr 
mounted, in order that no one might ;S93r^ 
there was any defect in his hprsemanshipi; 
a4}d feeling annoyed at the horse's wanti o£ 
power?! he punished it slightly, and anin 
qiating it by causing it to gallop oound 
the circus, he then cleared the lofty baiv 
and all the spectators applauded 90id' tes^ 
l^ed their approbation^ 

Juggling 



Digitized by 



Google 



39 

Ju'tfiGLilirG-^Ftom amongst the juggling 
tffeks tbete ^as the following. Ri a sma!! 
copper cistern tliere was a Wdodeh dtfck 
fSek a swimnking, the spedtators -standing 
tbundi The jtiggler then made a sigta in 
a certdih dfrectiim, and the duck immedi- 
ately iturh<^ its t^d towards hint, and 
apphi)adhing the side of the crstem, re- 
l^^ined there. The fetters coniposing pebJ- 
ple s names being written on separitb piec^ 
of paper, wferfe disposed apart round the 
sides of the feisterfa: the diick^ of itself, 
dabbed with its beak at the diifferent let- 
ter, until it had gone ovei* all the Idftfefs 
bfthfenahie 6f an individual; Althttiigh 
I Was lihable thoroughly to com^rtehehd 
the reason of this, yet I understand enougti 
of it to know thai it wias occasiohted by 
thu iniiat^ property of th^ loadstbiie '; for 
(ftfbbably) in the body of the duck ia piece 
of stfcel was conceialed, and the juggler 
I 2 haVih^ 



Digitized by 



Google 



60 

having in his hand a loadstone, to which- 
ever side he signed, the wooden duck 
went, and remained there. 

To the south-west of the metropolis, 
and on the other side of the river, there 
is a garden which is very extensive. In 
the centre of it is a house, where there is 
dancing and bands of music : the visitors 
amuse themselves below. Women and 
girls who are celebrated as singers come 
.there and perform, and the audience praise 
and applaud them. In the recesses of 
the garden are arbours : in one of these 
arewiany pictures of men and women, and 
some represent fairies with a couple of 
wings on each side : these seemed very 
beautiful and handsome. There was also 
a very correct representation (of the scene) 
after the defeat of Nouab Surajah Dowlab, 
at Plassy, when Nouab Meermuhumud 
Jaffer Cawn, Lord CUve, and the English 
officers, are all embracing one another and 

shaking 



Digitized by 



Google 



61 

shaking hands. In other places : there 
were fire-works and cascades, and the 
great resplendence from the lamps was (to 
me) a source of exceeding wonder. 

There was an exhibition near the bazar 
of the Haymarket of a tall and corpulent 
female : the people who went to see this 
sight gave each a rupee. Her height ex- 
ceeded five cubits. As soon as she heard 
that a black Hindoostanee man had come 
to pay her a visit, she quickly came to me. 
in a mirthful and laughing manner. When 
I stood before her I only reached to her 
arm-pit. She was stout in proportion to 
her height: her wrist was thicker than 
raine^ and in bodily strength she resembled 
a champion. Truly, her figure was so 
desirable, and her face so beautiful, that 
my pen is unable to recount the praises 
of her countenance and stature, and my 
tongue has not the power to give a relation 
of her fairness. To be brief, I was amazed 

at 



Digitized by 



Google 



m 

sit tteeing ber; and she not having bdbre 
seen a Hindee man dressed out in the 
manner I was, contemplatied me ^f a 
short timewitii wonder; and I, tiewing 
her loveliness and beauty, was confounded. 



Digitized by 



Google 



63 



After I had resided three months in 
LoDdoD, it was with grief and sorrow t\tat 
I left it, and in company with Captain S« 
arrived at Oxford. However, at seeing 
this city my defected heart was gladdened, 
and from viewing the beauty and clean 
appearance of it, the bird of joy con- 
structed a nest on the branch of my heart 

Tb<e city of Oxford is distaut three 
stages from London. There I beheld the 
builfdings of the Univ^sity and ancient 
churches^ which were upwards of one 
thousand years old, and till this day remain 
^tire: they ar« not at all dilapidated, 
hut appear ss if they had been recently 
^eoted. The roofs of the cathedrals a^re 
covered y^ith sheets of lead, and no rain- 
water 



Digitized by 



Google 



64 

water is able to penetrate this. The walls 
are commonly of dark stone. I (parti- 
cularly) observ^ed one edifice, whose roof 
was not supjported by a single beam : it 
was entirely terraced over. This was very 
strange and wonderful ; for notwithstand- 
ing strong winds and tempests, the roof of 
the edifice was neither damaged nor in- 
jured, although it is without either beam 
or pillar. Here there are old gardens, 
which are laid out with clumps of trees 
and flower-beds. The branches of the 
trees are cut so as to form representations 
of men, quadrupeds, &c. : these figures 
were very curious. 

In one of the colleges there was a pro- 
fessor of the name of Dr. Hunt, who 
shewed me many Persian works. I observed 
a translation of the Kuleelah and Dumnah, 
and I copied out for Captain S. the epi- 
logue of the Furhung Jehangeree. Whilst 
here I visited Mr. Jones ; this gentleman 

is 



Digitized by 



Google 



65 

k now in the Court of Calcutta. Captain 
S. and Mr. Jones taking me along with 
theih^ went to the libraries, where also I 
saw numerous books in Persian and Arabic* 
Amongst these there were three papers 
written in Persian and Turkish characters, 
which a certain Mulekool Joosea had sent 
to the King of England. At that time 
there was nobody in England who could 
read Persian (fluently) ; for this reason the 
purport and meaning of these papers were 
not properly understood, and in every 
place thei^ was the markof doubt. They! 
shewed theid to me, and I read them with 
facility. They likewise, in order to exa- 
mine roe and try ray abilities, put different 
books into my band, and according to my 
Capacity I explained their meaning and 
sense. 

Formerly, on ship-board. Captain S^ 

read with me the whole of the Kuleelah 

and Dumnah, and had translated the 

K twelve 



Digitized by 



Google 



66 

twelve rules of the Furhung Jehangeree^ 
which comprise the grammar of the Persian 
langaage. Mr. Jones having seen that 
translation^ with the approbation of Cap- 
tain S.9 compiled his Grammar, and having 
printed it, sold it a^ made a good deal 
of money by it. This Grammar is a very 
celebrated one. 

In one of the libraries I saw many statues, 
and excellent pictures, by the haiid^ of 
skilful painters and old masters. These 
were purchased and brought here from 
foreign countries at a great price: some 
of them for ten and twenty thousand 
ru pees. The generality of statues of males 
and females, which are cut from marble, 
are from Greece. These statues are com- 
monly five, six, or seven cubits in height: 
perhaps formerly mankind were of this 
stature. Although I was no judge of the 
excellencies or imperfections in these sta-. 
tues, yet I was able to observe that in 

beauty. 



Digitized by 



Google 



67 

beauty, expression of counteoance, grace-" 
fulness and dignity, they did not differ a 
hair's breadth from an animated body« 
The sculptors who formed these bore 
away the palm from Mani* and Fur- 
hud.-f* Although, at this time, England 
is the emporium of the arts in Europe, 
notwithstanding this, I heard that now 
a^ays they are not able to produce such 
pictures and statues as these. 

In former times there was a painter in 
England who was a complete master of his 
profession, and who in his day had no 
campetiton Having taken a poor man 
into a private recess of his house he intoxi- 
cated him, and fixed both his feet with a 
nail to the wall, and extending his arms 
he likewise made them fast with nails of 
iron ; he then stabbed him in the breast 
with a knife, and when he was in the 
K 2 agonies 

* A celebrated Chinese sculptor. 

f A Persian statuary of great celebrity. 



Digitized by 



Google 



68 

agonies of death, and about to give up 
the ghost, he (the paintdr) made a correct 
delineation of his expression of counte- 
nance and (convulsed) limbs. No one 
before had ever painted so excellent a pic- 
ture, and to others of the profession it 
appeared to be one of exceeding value, 
and they greatly praised the performance. 
However, the murder of the innocent man 
did not remain concealed, and punbhment 
overtook the person who had committed 
this wicked deed, and he was sentenced to 
be executed. When this was about to take 
place, he said, " My picture is not yet 
^^ finished, and I have still to apply some' 
" colouring.'" In order to this being done 
the picture was given to him. The har- 
dened wretch then blotted the canvas with 
ink and blackened the face of the painting. 
The by-standers were astonished at what 
he was doing, and began to lament, saying, 
" This excellent picture is now ruined.'' 

When 



Digitized by 



Google 



69 

When they brought him into the preseDce 
of the sovereign, the King asked him what 
was his reason for doing thb P He replied^ 
^^ It was with great labour and trouble 
that I painted this picture : and if I am 
to lose mj life for it, what good will the 
preservation of it do me ?'' His Majesty 
said, " If I were to save your life, are you 
" able to restore the painting (to its ori- 
" ginal state)?'* He answered, " Cer- 
" tainly ; for to every matter of diflGiculty 
** ' there is an opening key/' When the 
King had determined upon sparing him, 
the painter, by some means or other, 
wiped off the blots of ink, and made the 
painting clean and as free from stains as 
it had formerly been. 'Those present were 
amazed, and thought him superior to 
every other master. 

It cannot be concealed, that as long 
as there are patrons of science and encou- 
ragers of artists, for one picture a lakh of 

rupees 



Digitized by 



Google 



70 

rupees will be given, and a murderer may 
escape unpunished. In England it would 
be extraordinary if the arts and sciences 
did not flourish (from their being encou- 
raged). !Now in India, if a person by a 
long course of study were to acquire know- 
ledge, so as to excel the whole world, yet 
he would remain despised and contemned : 
he would neither acquire honour nor re- 
spect, and in the end misfortune and 
misery ^would overtake him. Under these 
circumstances, it would be a matter of 
wonder if any individual were to apply 
himself to, or become distinguished in the 
arts and sciences. 

I saw the observatory, which is very 
lofty. It consists of nine stories : in every 
story there are works on astronomy and 
astrology. The doctors, ascending to the 
upper part, by means of a large telescope 
contemplate the seven heavens and twelve 
jigns of the Zodiac, and investigate the 

influences 



Digitized by 



Google 



71 

infiuences of the fixed stars and planets^ 
and of every sign. There I saw, likewise, 
the map of the seven climates,* astrolabes, 
&c. One of the colleges is that of me- 
dicine, in which are suspended from the 
roof human bones, from the head to the 
foot, and the limbs and joints of the dead 
are connected with ircm wires. 

* The seven repons of the worid. 



Digitized by 



Google 



72 



CHAPTER VIII. 



The Narrative of the Author's Journey to Scotland 

He arrires in Edinburgh Captain S. and his Family. 

At the time that Captain S. and myself 
left Oxford and set out for Scotland it was 
the season of winter. Whilst we were 
proceeding on our journey I observed peo- 
ple gliding swiftly along on the ice, and I 
was told that in one day they go a 
distance of fifty, sixty, or even one 
hundred coss. Although (formerly) I had 
heard the same thing from many gentle* 
men, I was greatly surprised at it, and did 
not believe them; but now I was con- 
vinced by ocular demonstration, and all 
doubt vanished from my mind. The 
manner in which these people travel on 
the ice is as follows : They place on (their 
foot) a wooden sole, and attaching to the 

middle 



Digitized by 



Google 



73 

middle of the wood a piece of steel of a 
foot in length and of half a finger's breadth, 
which is clean; and polished, they strap the 
whole on tight to the foot with leather 
straps. When they stand upright, the 
piece of steel is straight upon the ice ; 
if the foot slips and is bent to one side the 
person falls down. This exercise requires 
^eat practice. If they frequently exer- 
cise themselves in it, they will acquire the 
power both of gliding along and of turning 
in different directions: all which I wit- 
nessed; for when they passed along, their 
speed. was greater than the wind or an 
arrow, and their passage exceeded the 
dQight of a bird in swiftness. — ^When they 
glided along, the white-robed people of 
JBurope appeared . as if angels had des- 
cended from heaven and were walking on 
the^ earth, or as if fairies were skimming 
along the level surface of the ground. I 
was • informed > that in the caste : of Hoi* 

L landers 



Digitized by 



Google 



74 

landefs botiti b^xjoh etod in this ex^rciie^ 
betaiue jn their country rivem and icatwls 
ere numeroud. During the period of frost 
and ide, the lower classes of the countrj 
having placed. «oi}k-pail$ and baskets .cf 
vegetables on their heads and sboulden^ 
«Hikt a circuit of the citi^ and towns^ 
from the rooming until noon, and return 
to , their honies ; and it is. exti»ordioarj!;| 
that fxofMx i^ils that are filled with milk 
^od gftee/uot a. drop j&ils. neither .«!$ 
4^ey broken, 

. . TrayelUog in a northerly direction, after 
» short time we arrived in Scotland. Tiye 
country is .divided into . high^-^oida and 
1o!f*lands. In Scotland mountains and 
forest abound ; the cities are fewtt ijn 

Quinber thaq . in England. |^,ow ja^iajoi, 

by reason of their industry and alHlity^ 
there a^e merchmts and. w;ealthy. men 
(amongst the Scotch), and these. araJn^ 
creasing ill. Buiiiber; the t6wos. are: daily 
„: . : augmenting, 



Digitized by 



Google 



iiiigm«M>ting,and tbete !» atso fto inqr^in^pt 
m the wMHb. It i$ an undoubted fapjti 
&w.t n6hn are acquired by tb« iPUtva) 
fri^dship 6f botb castes, hv enioiiiy bor 
^eto poveirty. 

' =Thel Seotch are 'an abstemioas laeCi 
aad'tbeir valoQ? and bravery dre lauei^ 
wtolled : they esteem Ibemselves fat 
nlperior to l&e English, a«id ^y tb?^ 
tibe Engliaih are great gluttons, and of in-p 
ftriof cburage. The English, again, 9^ 
touni tbemSelves better by reaspn of their 
jfiealtfa, and despise the Scotch for being 
poor. The latgaages of the two countries 
d^^ io^'a few ternis. - " 

' Haviag arrived in Bdinbuiuhwre alight* 
edat the hoUse of Captain l^/s father. The 
^eptain tntroduced me to his parepiM* 
His father was very old. There were three 
brothers of tbem, John S. ^c, and two 
grown-up »ister$ who were spinster?. 
In Europe the manner in which people 
L 2 marry 



Digitized by 



Google 



76 

marry is as follows. The consent of botb 
the lady and gentleman is requisite* It 
b necessary that the mail be good-looking^ 
of an agreeable temper, wealthy, skilled 
in business, and that he have a livelihood^ 
On the part of the lady, she must likewise 
be well-favoured, of a good disposition, 
have a portion either from her father of 
from a former husband, and be versed in 
some of the fine arts. If all these good 
qualities are centred in one individual, 
that person is a rarity ; and if a man and 
woman of the above description join them* 
selves in wedlock, it will be a fortunate 
circumstance. Some people, however, 
look only to wealth, and marry >solely 
for itrf If a lady happen to be both ugly 
and poor, then no man will connect him- 
self with her; for Europe is the emporium 
of beauty, and- women excelling in Ipveli- 
ness are very. common; also wealthy and 
▼irtiious ones (abound): therefore it fol- 
lows. 



Digitized by 



Google 



77 

)0WS) that if a lady have neither beauty 
lk)r ridhes, no one inquires after her. On 
this account, there are thousands of old 
ladieft who have never seen the fece of 
man. Of a truth, in whatever country 
excellencies abound, their separate values 
are depreciated. (In like manner) articles 
which in this country (India) are account* 
ed of no value, in another country are 
Very dear and high-priced. To illustrate 
this : in Hindoostan a seer of tamarinds is 
sold for a pice,* but in Europe, &c. a seer 
sells for a gold mohurj-f- or even more. 
• The father of Captain S. became com* 
pletely crazed in his old age ; and being 
prodigal in his expenditure, his eldest 
son, John, according to the usage of 
the country in similar cases, laid the 
case before the court, and stated : ^^aU 
^* though this person is my father, yet 

"from 

* A pice is a smiiU copper coin, 
f Equal in value to fifteen rupeei. 



Digitized by 



Google 



^Vfrcnil being in liis dotage he faaskbe^ 
** eome lavish in Tiis expenditure.*' -The 
eldest son being tlie heir of. th» property 
of kisfiitiier^ die gentlemen of the courti 
according to the practice of the' country, 
put a stop to his ciitravagatace bj ^epiii^ 
ing him of the^nianagem^tet^of the pitK 
perty, and constituted the eidtot ison the 
manage of the estate ; at the same time 
enjoining, that he should allbt to his father 
whatever was requisite in the way off rfcietd 
and clothSes : as I myself iaw was the^oa^ 
Mr. S: senior, thofugh he was - supertln^ 
nuated; being upwards of seventy, yet 
employed himself in painting, and did 
not misspend his time. 
^ I leamed that (formerly), when' Captain 
S. was in Europe, he was deeply versed in 
skirgery, and (once), for the purpose of 
dissection, he disinterred the corpse of a 
poor man. This having been discovered, 
for fear of his life he embarked on 

board 



Digitized by 



Google 



79 

boclrd ship and ran atvay, and for hiaiiy 
dajPB practised as. a burgeoD in th(p couop 
tries, of .Maibcca and Pegu. . Erom thence 
he went to Madras/ and accompanied 
Colonel :CUYe(Sabit Jung Buhadoor) to 
Calcutta, at . the time of the war with 
Noudb Surajah Dowlah. After thiSf in 
Aaemabad^ he was a Captain of a bat^ 
talion of Sepojrs, and on intimate terms 
with -General Camac, and a companion in 
arms with him in mighty battles, and dis- 
tinguished himself by his bravery. He 
then, with one battalion, achieyed the 
conquest of the countries of Teera and 
Roshunabad. After this he served under 
the command of Major Adams in the wars 
of Casim AUee Khan, and strained every 
nerve, and exerted himself greatly (in as- 
sisting) to subdue Moongeer and Azema- 
bad. He next (served under) the com- 
mander-in-chief. General Carnac, when 
he attended at the stirrup of Shah Alum 

Badsha 



Digitized by 



Google 



80 

Badsha with an English army. He (Cap^ 
4aia S.) was . present in the conflicts at 
Calpeeand Kor Jehanabad, and attained 
a high reputation for valour; add in the 
wars of Nouab Shoojaut Dowlah^ he be* 
came Goieral Carnac's Iseccetary. Fi-* 
nally, for the reason mentioned at the 
^commencement of this work, he returned 
to. Europe. 



Digitized by 



Google 



81 



CHAPTER IX. 

Some Account of the Highlands. 

In that region the towns are few in 
number, but mountains, forests and deso- 
late spots abound. There, for twelve 
months in the year, it snows and rains; 
but the males of the country, especially 
the lower orders, from being so accus- 
tomed to snow and cold, suffer no incon- 
venience whatever from either. As an 
instance of this, the poorer sort, as the 
caste of shepherds, spreading half of 
their cloak on the ground, and cover- 
ing themselves with the other half, lie 
down to sleep in the jungles. When 
the snow is collected in a heap on the 
cloak, they jump up, give it a shake, 
and again betake themselves to rest in 
the snow. 

M The 



Digitized by 



Google 



82 

The tails and wool of the sheep are 
curled like the cotton of a coverlet ; — 
for which reason the cold makes no im- 
pression on their bodies, and during the 
twelve months the flocks remain out in 
the jungles and pasture grounds. During 
the time snow is on the ground, and when 
they can get neither green herbs nor grass, 
both sheep, horses, and cows are fed upon 
hay. Those sheep on whose bodies the 
wool is sc^nt, by reason of the frost re- 
main thin and weak; but there are here 
very few of this description. The grass of 
Europe is sweet scented, and is highly 
nutritive for animals. In Europe there is 
neither gram,* mash,-f- nor hurburah;+ 
but there is a species of grain whose seed 
is blackish : it is called corn. The Scotch 
people eat this themselves and also feed 
horses upon it. 

The 

* Gram or kookkee, name of a grain (Dolichos biflorus.) 
f A kind of vetch (Phaseolus max.) if Unknown. 



Digitized by 



Google 



83 

The Highlanders wear a bonnet and 
jacket, but neither breeches nor boots! 
Their lower body is covered to the knee 
with the skirt of their jacket; the knee 
is bare. Below the knee they wear cot- 
ton stockings on their legs, and shoes 
with buckles on their feet, and carry 
about with them a double-edged sword; 
I was told that their valour and bravery 
exceed all bounds. 

There is a tale, that upon a certain time 
a Highlander having come up to London 
was walking about in the bazar and was 
followed by a crowd of Englishmen and 
boys. From amongst the crowd a person, 
to create sport, lifted up the skirt of the 
Highlander's raiment behind. At this he 
was greatly ashamed ; and at the same 
time his wrath kindling, with a stroke of 
his sword he cut off that person's head. 
Then police officers, &c. came to seize him, 
and surrounded him both in front and 
M 2 



Digitized by 



Google 



84 

rear ; but be undauntedly stood bis 
ground before them, prepared either to 
kill or die : he wouiided many people, 
and on whichever side he made his bb- 
sault they fled before him. No one had 
the courage even to approach him, how 
then could they seize him ? This circum- 
stance coming to the knowledge of the 
King, he sent some of his own people to 
call him to him, and ordered them to say 
to him, "his Majesty has sent for you/' 
The Highlander, upon hearing the King*s 
name mentioned, immediately bowed his 
head, and followed those who had been 
commissioned to call him. When he came 
into the presence of the sovereign, the 
Monarch asked him why he had commit- 
ted murder without a cause ? The High* 
lander, according to the cui^tom of Europe^ 
kneeling on one knee bowed bis head, and 
having made his obeisance, respectfully 
said, "when that person (whom I killed) 

"had 



Digitized by 



Google 



u 



85 

" had seen my lower body I felt greatly 
" ashamed, and being jealous of my ho- 
" nour, I committed the deed ; but as soon 
" as I heard your Majesty's name, pre- 
" senting myself before you, I have been 

dignified by being permitted to kiss 
" your threshold. If you had not called 
" me, no one had the power to take me 
" alive/' The King approving the defence 
he had made, acquitted him of the mur« 
der, and honoured him with his counte-^ 
nance. 

There is another story of an adventure 
happening to a poor Highlander from not 
being well acquainted with the English 
language. He came up to London and 
was greatly distressed for want of victuals* 
One day, in the bazar, seeing a person 
with a friendly expression of countenance^ 
he stated to him his lamentable case. The 
man asked him why he did not go to the 
shop of a penny-cook, where it is usual 

for 



Digitized by 



Google 



86 

for poor people to get food. It is here 
necessary to state, that in these shops poor 
people giving a couple of pice, get a piece 
of bread, a portion of meat, and half a seer 
of beer or barley water : this kind of shop 
is called in English a penny-cook*s. The 
Highlander forgetting the name penny- 
cook, from his ignorance of the language 
thought that it was penny-cuty and going 
further on he asked the people of the city 
where the penny-cut shop was. A man 
(whom he addressed) thought that he 
wanted to get either his hair cut or to 
be shaved, and pointed out a barber's 
shop. The Highlander going to the shop 
knocked at the door, and was admitted by 
the barber, who seated him on a chair. 
The tonsor then filled an ewer with hot 
water, put a lump of soap in it, and 
making a lather, placed it on the table 
before the Highlander, and went up stairs 
for his razors and other shaving apparatus. 

The 



Digitized by 



Google 



87 

The Highlander taking the 8oap-8uds water 
for broth began to drink it, and swallowed 
three mouthfuls; and mistaking the lump 
of soap for a potatoe^ and being exceed- 
ingly hungry, he chewed and ate it. Upon 
the barber's coming down stairs and seeing 
what had happened, he was petrified with 
astonishment. The Highlander taking 
two pice from his pocket, laid them on the 
table, saying, " I am much obliged to you : 
" the broth was very good, but the potatoe 
*• was not sufficiently boiled/' 
. Stories of Englishmen. A certain coun- 
tryman having come up to town, alighted 
at . a friend's house and became his guest. 
The host, setting out a table, entertained 
him according to custom. The country- 
man relished highly a fried sheep's liver, 
for he had never before partaken of such a 
well-dressed fry, and he wrote down on 
paper the receipt for mixing the ingredients 
and the mode of cooking the dish, and 

put 



Digitized by 



Google 



88 

put the memorandum in bis pocket. The 
next morning be went to the butchers' 
stalls, and having purchased a sheep^s 
liver he tied it in a napkin, and carrying 
it in his hand set out for his own village. 
A bazar dog came behind him, snatched 
the liver, handkerchief and all, out of his 
hand, and scampered off. The country-* 
man, casting his eyes after the dog, said, 
" It is true you have taken a raw liver 
^' out of my hand, but I have still got 
" safe in my pocket the receipt for dres- 
" sing it.'' In this way, in every country, 
there is no scarcity of fools and blockheads. 

The country people, in particular,, are 
commpnly ignorant and stupid, as this 
other story of Ihe folly of an English 
countryman will establish. 

An old farmer intending to pay a visit 
to his landlord, said to his wife, ^^ it is 
*', needful that I take with me some pre-* 
" sent or other, to give to my landlord." 

Then 



Digitized by 



Google 



89 

Then bis spouse having taken a pig; tiefd 
it in a small bag and gave it m chai^ge of 
her husband. The old fellow, placing 
it on his shoulder, trudged away. Wheti 
be had accomplished half his journey he 
came to a house of entertainment, and 
feeling weary, he laid the bag down and 
betook himself to sleep. The host seeing 
the bag, and conjecturing that there was 
some living animal in it, immediately 
opened the mouth of it and discovered 
the pig. For the sake of sport he took it 
out, and substituted in its place a pup, 
and tying the mouth> of the bag the same 
as it bad been before, he laid it down« 
After a short time the farmer awoke, took 
up hi^ bag, and pursued bis way in th6 
direction of bis landlord's house: arriving 
there, immediately the landlord' beard tbd4i 
his tenatit had Come, he cam^ to rAeet 
him at the door in a very cordial manner, 
and k;h\dly inquired after his health ^ and 
N observing 



Digitized by 



Google 



90 

observing a bag in his hand, and imagiQing 
that there might be something in it, he 
said, " what is this that you have brought 
" for me?" The jfiarmer replied, " I am 
^^ but a poor man, how then can I bring 
** you a gift fitting to be presented to you ? 
** but, according to my means, I have here 
" brought you a pig/' — The landlord 
knowing his poverty was highly pleased 
(at what he had brought), and said, " for 
" you this is a great present indeed: 
" open the bag, I should like to see it." 
The farmer opening it found a pup inside. 
Then the landlord flew into a passion, and 
said in a rage, " What ! do you wish to 
" pass your jokes on me? Instantly.be- 
" gone.'* — The farmer, ashamed, turned 
away, and upon again reaching the ale- 
house, lay down to sleep as before. The 
host quickly took from the bag the pup 
and replaced the pig. The farmer awaking 
proceeded on his way home. Upon his 

wife's 



Digitized by 



Google 



91 

wife's coming out to meet htm, immedi- 
ately he saw' her, his anger rose, and his 
face reddening he said, '* don*t come 
" before me, V\\ teach you better man- 
" ners with a stick/' His wife said» 
" my dear, are you well? What is the 
" matter, what fault have I committed ?" 
The husband answered, " you tied up 
^^ in the bag a pup instead of a pig, and 
" have disgraced me before the landlord^ 
" what greater offence is there than this?'' 
The woman replied, " pardon me, I never 
** was guilty of such a thing."— The wife 
then opened the bag, when instantly the 
pig jumped out. The blockhead of a 
farmer was perfectly convinced that this 
miracle had been brought about by the 
porker ; for here he sees a pig, and there 
he saw a pup : and giving it a few strokes 
with his whip, he said, ^^ you must not 
play me this trick again. '^ 

N 2 



u 



Digitized by 



Google 



9i 



CHAPTER X 

Some Account of the different Countries of Europe.,..,, 
Hussurut Eesa,* and the Christian Religion. 

The couo tries of Europe are Italy, Ger- 
tii«Qy, Proos, RooSj .Denmark, Portugal, 
^liman^f- Spain, France, Britain, Tooarkis- 
tan, and three other'countries whose names 
J do not recollect. Kings rule over aU 
tb^se countries, witb the exception of the 
ca^te Wullundez,J whose country is yery 
small, and the government is vested in the 
)i^Qds of the nobles. The inhabitants are 
a)] merchants and men of substance : they 
are ^so great fish-catchers and fish^^sellera, 
on wliiich account the other JBuropeans. 
co^tepi^ptuQwly term the caste of Wul* 
lundez, " fish-qjoogers :*' besidef^ fiwn 

their 

*- The Lord Jesus. f Holland. t Dutch. 



Digitized by 



Google 



9S 

ibeif faaviog no kiog, tbejr are accounted 
mean and of no ooasideration. 

The languages of Italy and France are 
9weet and elegant; they are studied by 
the English* 

Russia in length and breadth surpasses 
all the other countries. Its sovereign is 
possessed of great state and power, and 
the people are celebrated for indefatigable 
industry ; so that, although the English 
are both alert and active, yet they (the 
Russians) call them indolent and ]azy« 
The account of Russia, as given in the 
Secimder Namah* by Shaikh Nizamee, is 
the description of the country as it was in 
former times, for in early ages the people 
were rude and uncivilized. It is bow 
nearly forty years since one of their kings,-f' 
wishing to be instructed in the arts and 
sciences^ went in person to England and 
other countries (for that purpose), and 

Hkewi«e 

* The Alexandrian History. f The Czar Peter. 



Digitized by 



Google 



94 

likewise sent a number of Russians on 
the same errand. These having acquired 
knowledge returned home, and instructed 
others of their countrymen in what they 
had been taught themselves. So I myself 
saw two Russians in Edinburgh, who were 
studying at the college : their complexions 
were reddish, like the colour of a brick. 

The Russian Monarch and his Majesty 
of England are always on friendly terms. 
There are many English in the Russian 
service, who instruct the people of the 
country in the manufacture of cannon 
and muskets, and in military exercises. 
Many English prefer living in Russia* 
The Russians account the English superior 
to other European nations as to religion^ 
military matters, and bravery, they (there- 
fore) imitate them in every thing ; and 
now a*days the Russians far surpass other 
European nations in warfare. A few years 
ago the Sovereign of Russia approached 

the 



Digitized by 



Google 



95 

the Room^ of the Mussulmans with an 
army, and owing to the treachery of the 
Wuzcerf- he was victorious, and attached 
to his government . a soobahj of the 
country of Room ; but from the divine 
goodness and the prayers of Hussurut the 
Prophet (with whom be the blessing and 
peace of God), in tl^e end he sustained a 
defeat and ran away. 

. After the demise of Hussurut Eesa, for 
some time the Khilafut § and office of 
Imaum|| devolved on his twelve apostles, 
and the New Testament, which is used by 
the caste of Nazarenes, was compiled by 
them. Then these men separating, went 
into foreign countries, and began to propa- 
gate the religion of Eesa and the laws which 
he enjoined. In these times, in the different 
sects of Christians there are slight shades 

of difference. 

The 

* Turkey. f Grand Vizier, :|: A province. 

§ The dignity of khalifa (caliph). 

II Chief priest. 



Digitized by 



Google 



96 

The root of the faith of this caste is, 
that Hossurut Eesa is acknowkdged to be 
the Son of God, because the Vir^n Marj 
bore him without having known mam 
However, a few of the English* do not 
subscribe to this doctrine, because they 
think that the pure nature (of God) cannot 
be bom of any one, neither from hira 
can any be born. They maintain that 
the Almighty has no counterpart, and 
never was created ; for, say they, *' How 
" can any one lay the false charge of 
** stuprum to the divinity? for it was 
** (only) by an exercise of thedi vine favour 
^ and condescension, that (God allowed) 
*' Hussurut Eesa to be called his son, to 
" exalt him above the dignity of the other 
^ prophets/' 

The caste of Jews, who take Hussurut 
Moosa-f- (with whom be the blessing of 
God) as their leader, still adhere to their 

old 

* The Unitarians* f Moses. 



Digitized by 



Google 



97 

old faith. This caste persecuted Hussurut 
Eesa (T^ith whom be the blessing of God) 
in the country of Syria, and finally cru- 
cified him. On this account the Jews 
are accounted by every other nation base 
and contemptible: no person respects or 
esteems them ; on the contrary, every other 
caste, and likewise the Muhumedans, wish 
to put them to death. Under these cir- 
cumstances, they are in terror for theii* 
lives in the different countries of Europe ; 
for the castes of Nazarenes, if they catch 
a Jew in their country, burn him alive. 
But the English, whose religion enjoins 
peace and friendship with every sect, 
tolerate every one> let his religion or cir- 
cumstances be what they may. I myself 
saw many Jews in London who sold 
eatables and clothes. 

- Nearly seven hundred years after the 
time of Hussurut Eesa, the resplendent 
brightness of Muhumud (with whom be 

o the 



Digitized by 



Google: 



98 

the blessing aud peace of God) enlightened 
this obscure world ; and besides «Qq»ag 
the adjustmeat of sublunary matters* the 
r^ligioQ of Islam was. disclosed. 

Th« Nazareiies, with regard to what ia 
to be eaten and what abstained fronit. take 
no accoiunt of what is lawful and what is 
^rbidden, hut think thai preferable which 
agrees with the constitution.. In their 
medical books it is said, that whatever 
things are wholesome or injurious, thesei 
things are to be eaten or abstained fcom* 
Wine is allowed, for the caste q£ Nazareues 
account the drinking of wiixe and the 
efttisg of swine's-flesh lawful pleaswes,, 
and care not for what (we esteem) lawful 
or forbiddeui or what (we consider) pMve 
or unclean. They sa^ that ^ whate^ve? 
'* comes in the course of e«4ting and 
^ drinking is lawful, if it contribute to 
^* health and is digestible ; and that that 
^ is unlawful, which when eaten prov^: 

injurious. 



Digitized by 



Google 



99 

^* hijorioUs. For what is the use of giving 
•* peopte so much needless trouble?** 
How6?er^ there are a few iixlividuak 
(atnbDg the Nazarenes) who, frcmi their 
youth to their old age, never eitJier tasted 
wane or swine's flesh, and adhere strictly 
to the preeeptB of the Old Testament ; 
fbr they aiy tiibt " Hussurut Eesa (with 
** whciiti be the blessing of God) cdnform- 
•* «d to the Old Testament, therefore it is 
^ necessaty that we follow his example^ 
^' be^iaiise the eating of swine's flc^h 
^ and the dridking of wine are in direct 
^ 6pposition to the injunctions (of the 
^^ Mosaic law). Hussurut £a» mentioned, 
•* that whatever was digestible might be 
*• e*ten, but did nat particularly explahi 
" what things we may eat, or that we 
•* may indulge in wine/* 

The commandments laid down ih the 

Testament are : that mankind is to con« 

sidfcr the divinity as single ; to believe in 

o 2 his 



Digitized by 



Google 



100 

his word and in his prophets ; not to biear 
false witness ; to refrain from lying; not 
to commit adultery, nor to kill; and to 
treat the poor and neighbours as if they 
were brothers*. 

The French and other nations place the 
effigies of Hussurut Eesa and Mureum^ in 
their churches, and worship them. But 
the caste of English consider this kind of 
idoiatory as an exceeding wickedness ; 
and, unlike these other castes, they keep 
their churches devoid of' all pictures. 
Every year the French, on the anniversary 
of the birth of Hussurut Eesa, make the 
effigy of a pregnant woman as a represent* 
tatidn of the Virgin Mary. They cause it 
to seem as if in labour, and at the time of 
the birth of the child they draw a san^ 
guineum pannum from under the skirt of 
the effigy, during which music playst and 
they shout with joy. They then seat 

the 

* The Virgin IJtfary. 



Digitized by 



Google 



101 

the wooden effigy on a throne, and re- 
verently fall down and worship it. Whilst 
I was contemplating this exhibition in the 
island of Mauritius, Captain S. and Mr. 
Peacock laughed at what the French were 
engaged in, and said to me, ^^ this schism 
" (or change from the original belief) 
** arises from ignorance and folly. This 
"prevails both in the religion of the 
" French and in that of others, but the 
" £n^ish are free from this wicked prac- 
** tice." Again, the caste of French and 
others are very bigotted j for if any Mus* 
sulinan were to go to their country, and 
were to, call to prayers with a sonorous 
voice and follow other rites of Islam, they 
irould instantly cast him into the 6re. 
On the other hand, the system of the 
English is that of perfect* reconciliation. 
In their country, if a Mussulman were to 
build a mosque, and according to the 
ritual of Islam were to call to prayers and 

pray, 



Digitized by 



Google 



102 

pray^ they woidd never prevent him, for 
they BUyj ^ what is it to us what the re- 
^^ ligion or faith of another may be :'' lot 
this is a eominon saying : ^^ Eesa for his 
^^ faith, and Moses for his faith/' 

Among the French^ &c. there are lakhs 
of hypocritical and wealthy priests* It is 
one of the customs of the, French for the 
women and men to repair once a year to 
the priest who id their conf<^or, and in>- 
dividually divulge to him whatever sins 
or wicked actions they have committed 
during the year : and ev^ry one, according 
to his means, gives a large present to th^ 
priest, in order that he^ by prayer and 
&sting, may intercede with the Almighty 
in their behalf, when God, through his 
mediation^ will blot out their iniquities^ 
The !Ekiglish ridicule all this, and say, 
^^ what folly and blindness is this ! Hovt 
^^ will God, who is the king of kings and 
" the cazee * of the day of judgment, 

" pardon 

* Judge. 



Digitized by 



Google 



103 

^* pardwi tbe sins of people from the in* 
^* treaties of such impure and and useless 
^ priests r 

This practice is wholly derived from tbe 
Hindooa; for the Brahmins, who are the 
priests of tbe caste of Hindoos, have comp« 
pletely deluded the people. They pretend 
that by bathing in the water of tbe River 
Ganges, all tbe. sins that a person has 
committed during his life will be pardoned ; 
hkewise, ^ if you are charitable to U9 (the 
^^ Brahoiins), we will cause you to enter 
^^ Heaven/' In the religious^ books of the 
caste alms^giving is strictly enjoined, par« 
ticokirly commanding that they are to be 
bestowed on tbe Brahmins. Although 
one Qf these may be possessed of a lakh ol 
rupees, yet for the sake of getting in 
charity a rupee, or eight annas, he goes 
from door to door. The *Bedd^eading 

Brahmins 

* The Bame of the four Hindoo scriptuves, likewise term*- 
ed, coUectively, Veda. 



Digitized by 



Google 



^ 104 

Brahmins thought that in future ages^ 
when their descendants have greatly in- 
creased, many of them will be helpless 
and poor, therefore alms-giving was enjoin- 
edy in order that a Brahmin may be 
maintained in the world by charity (alone) 
without labour or toil. . 
. The division of the Hindoos into castes 
is ian ejstraordinary thingi the Brahmins 
being esteemed superior and exalted 
above the others ; and it is enjoined in 
their books that, with the exception of 
the Brahjnins, no other person is allowed 
to read the Bedd : if any one does so he 
is damned. In any other caste there is 
no injunction that the people tnay not 
know the divine attributes, or may not 
read the articles of their faith,. or be ex- 
cluded from the advantages of knowledge. 
Of the Hindoos (from the above) what can 
be thought, but that they are excessively 
stupid? But, besides these, they have 

other 



Digitized by VaOOQlC 



105 

other customs similar, from witnessing 
which wisdom is confounded. What can 
I say more ? 

To be brief, the priests of the castes of 
French and others, with their consummate 
hypocrisy, lead the people astray, and 
have amassed great wealth. If these peo- 
ple were to read the high Koran, and 
were to believe in Hussurut Muhumud 
Mustafa* (on whom be the blessing and 
peace of God), there would be no great 
alteration to make between their present 
rites and those of the religion of Islam. 
Hypocrisy would then form no part of 
their religion. 

The hypocrites and intriguers, who are 
amongst both Mussulmans and Hindoos, 
and who from covetousness of worldly 
(wealth) array themselves in the dress of 
Fukeers-f- and Sofees,J are accounted 

p very 

* The chosen or selected. f Religious mendicants. 
t Wise men; from the Greek, a-$^f. In Persia this 
epithet is applied to free-thinkers, of which there are great 

numbers 



Digitized by 



Google 



106 

very wicked (by the French &c.), who 
being disgusted with their pride and pre- 
sumptuousnessy despise even those Fukeens 
who really abstain frpm sin, are worthy 
men, and without hypocrisy. So far do 
they carry this, th^t they maintain that 
our saints are incapable of performing 
miracles ; for (say they) the prophets alone 
w^^ able to pQrfQroi miracles, and these 
(your saints) ?ire not of this dignity. 

numbers in that country, many of them neither believe in 
ike Kora9 nor Muhumud : if they are suspected, or make a 
^jfpJlQF 9f tbeir opinionsy th^y are atoned by the multitude. 



Digitized by 



Google 



107 



CHAPTER XL 

or t&e DUMief (^ Ae Englisl^ iii Jtintis Mohtiiimd's 
propheticai offiee (on wbom bethe Uessing^&c) and id 
the noble KoMD. 

Th£ Englidi say^ *^ If we could discki^er 
^^ a&y notice of the prophetical offiti^ 
^^ of Muhamud in thd New Te^tafiieAft^ #e 
*' would assuredly accept the faith of 
'' Islam/' To this Mus^ulman^ amWei^ M 
follows : ^^ The origiiml books ol tktt Nef# 
^ Testauiesft have been lost to the Wofld^ 
'' After the death of Htisstiilht Eesifr, thef6 
^^ Were four raeii from timongsfr hid fl()6^ 
*^ tlesy whose names were Matthew, Matk> 
^^ Luke^ and John: these^ ffotn fti^^ory, 
" wrote four hooks^ which forili a pirfr of 
" the New Testament But (there i^ ti6 
" doubt) that Hussurut Eesa did not give 
^* a distinct account of the prophetical 

p 3 " office 



Digitized by 



Google 



108 

" office of Hussunit M uhumud (on whom 
« be the blessing, &c.), (therefore the 
" Evangelists) merely alluded in metapho- 
" rical language to his history in their wri- 
" tings : consequently, in the minds of thfe 
" Caste (of iN^azarenes) there is a doubt 
" (regarding his prophetical office)/* 

From amongst the different narratives of 
the New Testament, this is one. On a 
certain day Hussurut Eesa (with whom be 
peace), by way of giving advice, related 
this story : A certain rich man, the owner 
of a garden, went at the first watch of 
the day to the bazar, and hiring some 
labourers at the rate of one dirum* (per 
day), sent them to work in his garden. 
At the second watch he saw another set of 
labourers standing in the bazar : he asked 
them why they stood idle, and desired 
them (also) to go and work in his garden, 

and 

*- A dinim, twenty or twenty-five of which are equal to a 
dinar, which again is worth ahout nine shillings. 



Digitized by 



Google 



109 

and that in the evening every one should 
get a dirum. Again at the third watch, he 
went to the ba^ar, and observed a set 
of labourers standing unemployed in the 
street; he asked them what they were 
waiting there for : they replied, • We came 

* here late, on this account nobody gave us 
^ employment/ Then that person said, do 
^ you also go and work in my garden, and in 

* the evening every man will get a dirum.^ 
In the evening the three sets of workmen 
presented themselves before the owner of 
the garden for their hire, and he gave to 
each individual of the sets a dirum, ac- 
cording to the agreement he had made. 
Then the set of labourers who came first 
.began to murmur (and said), ^ We have 

* been working during the whole day in 
^ the heat of the sun, and have laboured 
^ hard, and some of those who came 

* after us only worked during one watch, 
^ and to us and to them you have given 

• the 



Digitized by 



Google 



110 

^ the same wages/ The master of the 
garden replied, ^ I first of all bargained 
^ with you to give you each one diram. 
They said, * true/ * Then/ continued the 
rich man, ^ I have fulfilled my promise, and 
^ am not to be controlled regarding what 
^ tends to my advantage or loss/ The 
Musadmeiis consider the last set as ap- 
plying to them, and say that our Prophet 
(on whom be the blessing,. &c.) appeared 
in the woiid after all the other prophets, 
and from having the gift of prophecy, 
attained to an equal rank with his prede^ 
eessors: for this reason, the followers of 
Hwsurut Muhnmud have a firm belief, 
that ^^ undoubtedly we will enter heaven 
" as well as those who have done so be- 
" fore us*' (followers of Moses, Jesus, &c.\ 
The Englisii say, that ** there are four 
** books which are commpnly received ;* 

** the 

* l8t.The Tauret (Ffentateuch); 2d. Zuboor (the Psalms); 
3d. Injeel (New Testament) ; and ^th. the Koran. 



Digitized by 



Google 



Ill 

^* the other smaller works were indited 
*< by the prophets : for how can we say 
^ that any of those works were sent from 
^' heaven, or that the smaller treatises 
^^ were written by God, for the Almighty 
** never sent tliem in a written state from 
^^ heaven. Now you (Musselmans) main- 
^' tain that Gabriel brought down the word 
** of God. Who ever saw Gabriel, and who 
" ever heard his voice? How can we 
^^ believe this without proof, and without 
^^ finding it in our Revelations ? The troth 
^^ of the matter is this : the prophets, who 
** are the guides and shewers of the road 
^ to the people, wrote these books accord- 
'' io^ to the best of their knowledge and 
^ imderstanding, in order to teach men 
'^ good mannefs and a correct line of con- 
^^ di»ct ; aS|^ for instance, the Pentateuch 
** was. writtea by Moses (with wbom^ be 
" peace); the Psalms by David (with 
^* whom be peace) ; the New Testament 

" by 



Digitized by 



Google 



112 

" by the Apostles of Christ (with whopi be 
" peace) ; and the noble Koran by Hus- 
" surut Muhumud (with whom be the 
" blessing and peace of God)/' 

The English do not acknowledge the 
high Koran, or Hussurut Muhumud Mus- 
tufa. However they praise the purity of 
the Hussurut's laws, and say that " Muhu- 
^' mud, as to knowledge and wisdom, was 
^^ a superior man, for he instituted an ex- 
" cellent form of worship :* but there is 
•* one fault to be found with him, that 
" unlike other prophets, he was a slayer 
" and a shedder of blood. Now this is 
** in direct opposition to the prophetical 
^^ office and the divine mission, because 
" the former prophets, by admonition and 
^^ advice alone, shewed lost mankind the 
" right road, and men willingly, and with- 
" out force being used, became converts 

« to 

* In. comparison with the gross idolatry of the>aiiineiit 
Arabs. 



Digitized by 



Google 



u 



113 

to the faith of the (origmal) prophets. 

If any one did not obey them, they left 

him alone ; if a person troubled and 
" injured them, they merely cursed him, 
^^ and God himself punished him ; but no 
*' (true) prophet was ever a slayer or spijt 
« blood/' 

Captain S. disputed with me, on one oc* 
casion, after the above manner. I replied : 
" the reason of Muhumud being a slayer 
" and spiller of blood was as follows. 

God amongst every nation produced 
" many prophets, but did not (always) 
^^ cause their admonitions and advices to 

make an impression on the hearts 
" of the different castes, and the people 
" troubled and vexed the prophets* After 
" some time our prophet was born, in 
" Mecca. At first iie tried favour, kind* 
^f ness, advice, admonitions, gentleness, 
^^ and tenderness, but these made no im* 
^* pression on the minds of the people. 

Q "At 



a 



<c 



Digitized by 



Google 



«( 



114 

'^ At last, at the hands of the caste Ko- 
" riesh,* he experienced great tyranny 
" and oppression. When their cruelty 
*' exceeded all bounds, and he had lost all 

hope of reclaiming them to Islam, being 
^^ helpless, in lowliness and meekness lie 
" supplicated the Almighty (to ^)oint out 
** what ought to be his line of conduct). 
** Then God commanded him to war 
^^ against the infidels ; and from that time 
^ holy warfare amongst Musselmans be- 
** came a divine obligation, and God re- 
^^ venged himself through means of his 
^* prophet on the enemies of the faith. 
•* Under these circumstances, then^ the 
^' pcophet did not take upon himself to 
" kill and slay, he merely obeyed the 
" commands of the Almighty/' 

After I returned from Europe, I gave 
a similar answer to a Mr. John Graham 
in Burdwan. This gentleman was con- 
tinually 

*' Koriesh, the tribe to which Muhumud belonged. 



Digitized by 



Google 



115 

tinually disputing with Moonshees Meer 
Suduroot- Deen and Meer Sirajood-Deen, 
regarding our faith and religion. He 
denied that Hussurut Muhumud Mustafa 
(on whom be the blessing and peace of 
God) had the gift of prophecy or could 
perfoim miracles, but he got no suitable 
answer (from them). . On a certain night 
they were disputing as usual, and Mr. 
Graham was laughing and jesting, and 
denying the prophetical office of (our pro- 
phet) ; towards the end (of the debate) 1 
came in, and heard Mr. Graham sayings 
" Mussulmans believe that by the inter- 
" cession of Hussurut Muhumud they will 
" go to heaven, and that all other people 
" will go to hell : now this is far removed 
" from wisdom. We, however, do not 
" believe that Hussurut Muhumud was a 
" prophet at all ; because (after the man- 
" ner of the ancient prophets) he perform- 
" ed no miracles, with the exception of 
Q 2 " this 



Digitized by 



Google 



116 

^^ this one : he bred up a pigeon and let 
** it loose in the hills and jungles; and 
^^ when the caste desired a miracle, he 
^^ went to a hill and shutting his hand, 
" shewed it to* the pigeon, which in 
^^ expectation of getting grain, came 
^ flying to him and alighted on his 
" shoulder or head : then Hussurut Mu- 
** humud said, * Behold ! I am God's pro- 
" phet, for the wild animals are present 
" at my command." The two Moonshees 
were very wroth and angry at this affront 
to their prophet, and answered this speech 
according to the usual belief of Mussul- 
mans, and repeated sentences of the Koran 
and traditions, and added, " God in the 
" high Koran says, that without doubt 
" Hussurut Muhumud is the prophet of 
" the latter times, and the mediator at 
" the day of judgment , for the prophet 
"caused the Sun to turn back, and made 
" trees to walk of themselves, but if any 

" one 



Digitized by 



Google 



117 

** one will not believe in the Koran and 
** our traditions, this is a common saying : 

<< If any one will not yield consent to the Koran and its 

narratives, 
^< The answer is this, to him let no answer be given.*' 

At this Mr. Graham shook his head, 
laughed, and said, *^ since I do not believe 
"in your Koran and other books, how 
^* can I be convinced by all that you can 
" say ?*' At this juncture I came forward 
and said, " If you will allow me, I will 
** say something regarding this matter/' 
Then they turned with attention to me. 
I continued : " I learn from the trans- 
" lation of the New Testament in my 
" possession, and from the books of his- 
" tory of by-gone times, that (many of) 
** the former prophets performed different 
" miracles, yet notwithstanding people 
" witnessed the performance of these mi- 
" racles, no man became a convert to 
** their faith, and the prophets experienc- 

" ed 



Digitized by 



Google 



118 

^* ed great trouble and vexation at the 
" hands of the people ; more particularly 
" Hussurut Eesa (with whom be peace), 
" who resuscitated the dead, gave sight to 
" the blind, cured the leprosy and other 
** diseases, besides performing many other 
^^ miracles, so that the miracles which 
" were exhibited by Hussurut Eesa were 
" far greater in number than those per- 
" formed by any other prophet whatsoever. 
^^ Notwithstanding all this, during his 
" life-time, besides the twelve apostles 
" not many more people believed in him ; 
** and it is written in the New Testament, 
" that the caste of Jews caused exceeding 
^' trouble to the Hussurut, until at last 
** they actually cruci6ed him. So, in like 
*' manner, our prophet, though he also 
" exhibited many miracles, yet was op- 
" pressed and molested by the unbelieving 
" Koriesh, till in the end he received the 
^* divine command to wage war. Even 

" then 



Digitized by 



Google 



119 

** then few people would obey him, a 
^* small number only accepting him. 

^^ The design I have in saying all this, 
'^ is to make manifest that at no time has 
*' the world been empty of wicked and 
" sinful men ; they abounded both in the 
" time of Hussurut Eesa (with whom be 
'^ peace) and in that of Hussurut Muhur 
'^ mud (on whom be the blessing and 
" peace of God) ; there are also many in 
" these days. If any one then (being 
" wicked and a bastard) will not believe 
" in our prophet, what can we do, and 
" whither can he repair to have justice 
" executed ? To conclude, however, the 
" Almighty, who is the King of Kings, 
^' will settle all these misunderstandings 
" at the last day/' 

Mr. Graham having heard what I had 
said was greatly perplexed, and remained 
silent. The two Moonshees quickly took 
leave, and taking me by the hands 

accom- 



Digitized by 



Google 



120 

accompanied me home, and lauding and 
praising me exceedingly, said, ** we never 
" could have replied to him in the way 
" you did/' They then, with great eager- 
ness, copied the New Testament, and 
from that day Mr. Graham never again 
attempted to dispute with Moonshees 
about faith and religion. 



Digitized by 



Google 



Hi 



CHAPTJER XII. 

Religious' Controversu^ 

One day Captain S. said to me,*' Mas- 
" ralmans content theniselves With pre- 
" destination and have ho delibferatibnl 
•* This custom in one sfense iS good, aiid i^ 
** not (on the whtole) a bad one. However 
" bur ciaste Arfe subject to the Contrbl of 
*^ wtsdtitn. They consider deliberation td 
" be far better thkn relying 6h pre^ 
'^ esteblidhed nec^issity, aiid think that 
" any thing cad be ^dcomplished by i;fis- 
*' dofn and ttsing the pro|)ier means (for the 
** end). If at any time there b^ £t rieg- 
" Ifect of (proper) precautioh, and iri a6y 
*' undertaking due care aiid dttehtibii be 
** not given (tb eflfefct its accompli^hfiie^i), 
" assuredly the attempt will hbt sucfcfced. 
" N6# your cast6, in a sitiall ttfatter 

R "or 



Digitized by 



Google 



132 

<^ or in a great enterpme, consider fate 
" to be over-ruling: as, for instance, if 
" you let a china plate or a bottle fall 
" from your hand and it is broken, you 
" (immediately) say, ' it was so predes- 
*f tined, therefore it so happened/ 

" A certain Duke who is the comman- 
" der-in-chief at present, and is very 
** brave and well acquainted with every 
^^ precaution to be taken in warfare, says, 
" * If I properly discipline and exercise 
" my army, and prepare all the materiel 
*f of war, then allow that the artny of my 
'^ antagonist be not prepared as above, I 
*• will obtain a victory over himi even 

though his army be double in number 
" to mine;' — now your people say that 
" victory is the gift of Providence, which 
" is an absurdity." 

I replied, " Fate rules every thing, and 
^^ God from all his creations produced man, 
^* a noble being, and clothed him in the 

" robes 



iC 



Digitized by 



Google 



123 

** robes of wisdom and underitanding, and 
** whatsoever (successful) undertaking that 
^* was determined should be attempted 
" (from all eternity), in that enterprize 
^* alone the wisdom of man contributes to 
" its accomplishment. If this were not 
" the case, wisdom would not be a benefit 
" at all. For example, a farmer ploughs 
** his land and prepares it, and sows his 
" seed, and commits no error in his hus- 
" bandry ; then if, through the predestina- 
" tion of Providence, no rain falls and his 
" field does not become green, in this 
** case what is the use of people's precau- 
" tions ? Therefore fate is the over-ruling 
" power in every thing. But our people 
" say, it is necessary to trust to fortune 
" in every thing. This is a complete 
" mistake; for let not a man in every 
** business trast alone to fate, and not 
" take any forethought, for it is wise to 
** use all deliberation/' 

R 2 It 



Digitized by 



Google 



124 

, It was usual for the gi;eat; peoiple ^ho 
9a^e to dine at Captain S/s . to send, for 
i^DLO^ an4. in. order to 1;ry ipy ^disppsition 
ti^^y cqnvefSed regarding (ouy) religion 
^d different custooist^ aod; (aliways) glutting 
from me a suitablcf r^ply^ they ^ere 
PJLeased (with ipe). One day General 
li^UDro, Captain A.^ and others, being 
assembled, were sitting together. They 
said to me, ^^ you are all alone in this 
** country, why do you not take unto 
*• ypurself a wife ?*' I answered, "There 
** afe, two great difficulties to be got over^ 
" by which I am excu^ed,^ and it is im- 
•* possible that I can marry^ here. The 
" first (difficulty) is this: the woman, that 
^* J^ am desirous of possessing is not in«* 
" qlined for me y (tl;ie second^ is), she that 
" wis)ie^ to havC; mf^ I dp not approve of* 
** What I mean is, that those women wha 
" are of good caste and noble will not 
" connect themselves with a person of 

" inferior 



Digitized by 



Google 



'/ iaferiKw ranH ftod of ft 4idbr«)>li reHgMQ t 
f^ 9Qdi I ipysdifs ii^ my qw,q country » anir 
" <H>psidei?^ ool^l«: . therefore tbougk a 
^f womau of 1q>w caste, of tfai;» coiiiutrjr 
^^ may bedieaiffou&of me^.J, however^ do 
^^ not wish to hfLYe any thieg to do wittr 
^ bcr>..'' . They, highly approved of what 
I had said, and laughed ijsiiQoderately. 
^ Again these people proposed a question. 
^ (Grod first of all created Adani< and then 
^^ prodiiced Bebee Houa to be a wife to 
^f himr What is the reason, then,, that 
^f your people, acting contrary to this, 
^^ marry son^e two> wives, and others 
^y four ? Why . did your prophet marry 
^f nine wives, and why did he allow the 
*f pcQple of his. sect to marry four?'* I 
answered, ^- The Almighty produced' wo- 
^^^ man tO' give; Mse tOj man^ and gave: to 
" Hussufut Adam (with whom he .peace) 
^^ Beebee Houa his wife, as a s^upport to 
*^ him .After this, when the descendants 

"of 



Digitized by 



Google 



136 

^* of Ad^til had increased, God com- 
^ ttianded, * if one woman cannot iron- 
's* tent you, take unto yourself another/ 
^\ Besides, at certain seasons women are 
^indisposed, and with parturition are 
^'confined some twenty, others forty 
** days; for these reasons our prophet 
*• allowed us, after marrying one woman, 
" to take another until we had four (if 
** we chose): five he prohibited; but if 
" one died we might marry another in her 
" stead. The reason, then, of his allowing 
" the people of his sect to marry four 
V wives is this : if a man, during the 
" temporary indisposition of his wife, 
^* wish to enjoy female society, he then 
** can repair to his second, third, and 
" fourth wives; if he had not these to 
" go to, he would be enticed by the 
** devil to connect himself with a strange 
" wonaan, and would commit the crime 
^* of adultery. The guides we had for 

" adopting 



Digitized by 



Google 



« 



127 

^^ adopting this custom/ are a^ foUovs. 
^* Before the birth of our prophet, Hus- 
** sumt Ibrahim* (with whom be peace) 
" Qianied two wives, vig. Beebee Sara 
" and Beebee Hajirah; Husauriit Soo^ 
" lijuanf had oae hundred and sixty 
" wives; and Hussurut DiaoodJ (with 
" whom be peace) always broke the laws 
" from his longing after woman-kind. 
" Therefwe then you must speak truly 
and say, whether the custom of keeping 
many women originated with our pro- 
phet, or took its rise irom the former 
prophets/' 
They then continued, " God^ from his 
^^ manifold bounties, conferred on lis a- 
great favour in giving us wine, which 
he gave as a gift to ' his servants. Now 
your prophet hath greatly oppressed 
" you, for he has prohibited the use 
** of this gift/'— -I answered, " In our 

"law 

* Abraham. f Solomon, % David. 



<6 






Digitized by 



Google 



198 

'* la^ (bbftides what t^gnrAh this) ihtrt 
^^ ^e matiy precepts rej^atdittg ^hat is 
'^ latrful and "(irbat is fbVbiddl^d. I myself 
^^ adi an ignomnt mtfn, add have not 
'^ suffidtsnt understatidibg to aDsweir in & 
** proper tnabnei' every question yott miay 
^* prdpose; however it is well known, that 
^* though wine itself is a good thing, yet 
^^ the into^Lication it causes is bad^ fof 
*^ it makes people lose their wits^ and 
" occasions their forgetting God ; for this 
^^ is the command of the Almighty to his 
<* servants^: ^ Eat and drink (what you 
^* please), but for one minute you must 
^* not forget tne/ Again these people 
<^ said, ^if in drinking wine a fiked mea*^ 
^^ sure be adhered to, a man \9i\\ not 
<* lose his senses, but fVom drinking his 
<* heart will (merely) be gladdened/'* 

They then continued : " your belief is, 
^* that if any one in his heart, once in 
^^ sincerity recite the confession of faith 

"of 



Digitized by 



Google 



129 

" of Hussurut Muhumud,* that person 
'* undoubtedly will enter heaven; and 
" all other people (who do not) will go 
" to hell. Now the Mussulmans are few 
" in number ; they inhabit only Turkey, 
^^ Syria, Persia, Arabia, and Hindoostan ; 
" and the people who dwell in other 
" countries are numerous; they (you say) 
" will all be damned. What kind of a 
" speech is this? Did (God) create his 
" servants only for the purpose of burning 
*• them ?'' J^o this I replied : " certainly ; 
** for our belief is, that although Mussul- 
" mans are few in number, heaven was 
*' prepared for them alone. Other people 
" are numerous; for this reason hell is 
" four times larger and broader than pa- 
" radise. 
" Although all men are God's servants, 
yet among them some are obedient, some 



(( 



s " wise. 



* LaiUa iUvUah, Muhumudoon Riaod VUah : << There is 
no God but (the one) God, and Muhumud is his prophet." 



Digitized by 



Google 



J30 

^^ wise, some honest, some are fools, some 
" thieves, and some are without probity. 
** In this manner, in the New Testament, 
^^ Hussurut Eesa (with whom be peace) 
" says as follows, by way of parable. A 
^^ certain person had three sons, and once, 
" upon setting out on a journey, in order 
<^ to make trial of their understandings 
^^ and honest}', he gave to each a thou- 
** sand rupees. The eldest son buried 
•* his money in the ground, which a thief 
" carried off; the second son gave his to 
^^ a banker, and spent the interest of it 
** himself; and the third son, having traf- 
^< licked with his thousand rupees, doubled 
^^ his principal and made it two thousand. 
<* When the father returned from his jour- 
^' ney he asked his sons for the money 
'^ with which he had entrasted them. 
" The eldest son, being unable to give 
" him the sum, told what had happened. 
^' The second son returned the original 

" thousand 



Digitized by 



Google 



131 

'^ thousand rupees. The father said to 
'* him, * you are only wise by halves/ 
*^ and gaive him a small present; the 
*' youngest son gave back not only the 
^' original thousand rupees, but also a 
'^ thousand rupees of profit. At this the 
** father was exceedingly rejoiced, and 
*' said, ^ this person is both wholly wise 
^^ and honest/ He then entrusted him 
^^ with the management of his whole pro* 
^^ perty and effects. Hussurut li^sa then 
^ explained the meaning of the parable, 
'^ and said : ^ Before God it is so ordered 
'^ that that individual who retainti the 
*^ whole of the original sum, the whole is. 
'* made over to him ; he who has retained 
^' less^ the less will be given him ; and 
^^ he who preserves nothing at all, his 
" hand will remain empty/ 

'^ Musselmans interpret the foregoing 

" narrative in the following way. The 

" foolish man represents those who are 

s 2 " ignorant 



Digitized by 



Google 



132 

" ignorant and disobedient. The mean- 
" ing of the sum of money is faith ; and 
" by the thief the devil is intended, who 
** steals away the faith of fools mid care- 
" less persons, who therefore do not be- 
" lieve in God, become excluded from 
" the mercy of the Almighty, and their 
" portion is hell-lfire. By the second son, 
" who squandered away the interest of 
** his money, hypocrites are intended, 
" who partially believe in God, but con- 
" sider God's prophets impostors: their 
" place will also be hell. But by the 
" third son, who by his faith and good 
** works not only presented his father 
^^ with the original sum, but also with 
^' the profit he had made, (good) Mus- 
" selmans are typified ; for they attest God 
" to be their nourisher by word and 
" thought ; they rely upon him, and do 
** not deviate a hair's breadth from, his 
•* laws and those of his prophets. The 

" world 



Digitized by 



Google 



133 

" world by them is considered a perisha- 
'^ ble house, and in the hope of entering 
^* heaven, and remaining there always, 
^' they lead an austere and hard life, and 
^^ subject themselves to a thousand labours 
" and difficulties: they account worldly 
^^ wealth as useless, and do not follow the 
^^ inclinations of other people of the caste. 
" These certainly then, and without doubt, 
** will see paradise; because, say they, 
" *in the world are sown the seeds of 
** futurity:' as the tribe of Arabs say 
" regarding this life, 

« (True it is) the world is the field of futurity.* 

" For those individuals who take great 

** pains to acquire riches will get their re- 

" ward onl}' in this world, and will live in 

" the mere enjoyment of worldly wealth. 

** Truly, the paradise of such people is 

" this earth : of a surety, they will be 

" without hope of future advantage and 

" of heaven, 

'^In 



Digitized by 



Google 



134 

*^ In man's estate, grief and gladness 

" are both associated. After joy comes 

<< sorrow, and grief is succeeded by mirth. 

" Sorrow does not always depress, nor 

" does gladness continually prevail. Un- 

^^ der these circumstances, then. Mussel- 

** mans care little for worldly wealth, are 

^* constantly subject to tribulation on 

^^ account of their faith; but in the end 

" they will certainly get riches. Other 

*' people, again, who now enjoy them- 

" selves with the pleasures of this world, 

" will be oppressed with sorrow and grief 

" at last." 



Digitized by 



Google 



135 



CHAPTER XIII. 

The King of England Army and Navy Courts 

of Lavi^. 

The first monarch who ruled over the 
whole of England was named William : 
he was a man of great bravery and valour. 
After him many kings of different names 
reigned 9 until the sovereign power of Eng- 
land descended to a Queen, who is great- 
ly celebrated, even in these days, for her 
sagacity and love of justice. Through her 
the name of England became famous in 
every region of the earth. There is the 
following account of her mode of dis- 
pensing justice, and of her wisdom. A 
certain woman laid in court a false accu- 
saticm of rape against a man : she de- 
clared that such and such a person had 

pros- 



Digitized by 



Google 



136 

prostituted her forcibly : the judges be- 
lieved what she said, and ordered the man 
for execution. This having come to the 
royal ear, the Queen called both parties 
before her, and having heard the state- 
ments of both the plaintiff and defendant, 
she drew a sword from its scabbard, put 
the hilt of it into the woman's hand, 
and holding the scabbard in her own, 
ordered her to sheath it. The defloured 
woman tried all she could to return the 
blade into its scabbard, but was unable, 
for the queen shook it. Then her majesty 
said, " If you had not been willing the 
" man could never have ravished you. 
" Why did you not call out, in order that 
" the people of the neighbourhood might 
*' come to your assistance ?" In this way 
the Queen discovering that the accusation 
was false^ saved the man from death. 

King George the Third, who now occu- 
pies the throne of England, is famed for 

his 



Digitized by 



Google 



137 

his bravery, wisdoiD, and high intention, 
and is otherwise praised* At the time 
that the writer of the Shigurf Namah 
saw him in England he was a stout 
and well-favoured man : his queen was 
of short stature and fair. I was told 
that it is an old established custom of 
the English iiionarchs to marry a woman 
of a strange caste, but who is of royal 
descent. George the Third is the father 
of sons. 

The King of England, in matters of 
government^ is not independent, like the 
Great Mogul of India, but in all state 
affairs can do nothing without first con- 
suiting and advising with hid miniitterd 
and nobles, and a few men selected from 
the middle classes. If, as in the govern- 
ment of India, discord arise among the 
rulers, undoubtedly the wealth and go- 
veminent will depart from their hands, as 
this verse sufficiently demonstrates : 

T '' All 



Digitized by 



Google 



138 

« All wealth is acquired by concord : 

« Discord begets poverty. 

<< Many kings (from not advising with their ministers) 

' << have lost their dignity^ 
<< And their sovereign rule hath departed from them." 

In England every one is free ; no one can 
lord it over another, and there is no such 
thing known as master and slave : which 
is totally different from other countries, in 
which all are slaves of the king. In Eng- 
land, both great and small would be 
greatly ashamed at the term slave. They 
say, ** we call one person king, for without 
" that government could not be carried 
" on, and therefore we have set a ruler 
*^ over us ; but we all individually take 
" some charge in governing. . Our caste^ 
" in order to increase its renown in con* 
" flicts with our enemies, sacriiQces both 
'^ life and estate, but no one is a slave. 
" However, we do not deviate a hair's 
" breadth in paying due respect and 

"honour 



Digitized by 



Google 



139 

^^ boDour to the King and his ministers ; 
" and, in the same way^ Jii;s: Majesty 
'^ thinks, it incumbent on him to shew a 
" prpper regard for his subjects, and rules 
" in a mild and gentle manner.? 

The royal army is distributed in dif- 
ferent cantonments. Those persons are 
selected (for it) who are robust and of a 
proper height, and they are disciplined a^ 
dragoons or foot soldiers. They are dres- 
sed ill clean, clothes and, of one colour, 
and are instructed in the drill and martial 
exercises. (Each of the cavalry regiments 
consists of) seven hundred horses, and 
every regiment is of one colour : as one is 
black, (and another) white or bay. For 
this reason, at the time of exercise, the 
hearts of beholders are gladdened, for (the 
horsemen) are splendid to look on. The 
men get their rations and uniform from 
government; besides these their pay is 
eight rupees a month. 

T 2 The 



Digitized by 



Google 



140 

The caste of Epglish excel all other 
European nations in naval irar&re : they 
are both po^irerful in it, and have a natural 
genius, for it By reason of the great 
number of their. ships, and from the mat6'' 
n€d of war being always ready, no Euro- 
pean power is able to approach with « 
hostile intention. The countxy is an island^ 
round which the ships of war prowl, ther^ 
fore enemies can never hope to conquer it 
It is cnstomary, in the time of war, to keep 
all the vessels fully equipped, and in peace 
a number of ships have their masts struck 
and are unrigged. When, however, the^e 
is an appearance of war, they are quickly 
fitted out and sent to sea. 

The caste of English is cdebrated 
throughout the universe for bravery and 
courage, and for skill in military tactics. 
A soldier esteems the order of the con^ 
fnander^in-cbief as equal to that of his 
God. 

Many 



Digitized by 



Google 



141 

Many of their regulations are entirely 
different from those of other countries: 
ooe of which is, that if the orders of an 
officer be deviated froni^ even a hair's 
breadth^ death is the consequence ; or the 
offender is discharged, and being thereby 
rendered infamous, he is unable to serve 
again. Another article is, that if any one 
runs away during the time of battle, it is 
the greatest crime a soldier can commit ; 
it cannot be pardoned by any means. A 
person in this predicament will assuredly 
suffer death, even although he may hap* 
pen to be a prince, a man of rank, or an 
old ofScer. It is even laid down, that 
aldiough the army of the enemy be double 
in number, there must be no running away 
nor (disgraceful) retreat : he who betakes 
himself to flight subjects himself to death. 
Another article says, that all plunder, 
though it amount to lacks and crores"*^ of 

rupees^ 

* A crore is ten millions. 



Digitized by 



Google 



142 

rupees, is to be distributed amongst the 
men and officers, to every one according to 
his rank. This is contrary to the custom 
of other nations ; as, for instance^ the 
French and Portuguese, who give a fourth 
share to the soldiers, the rest (of the cap- 
tured property) goes to the royal treasury. 
The motive of the English in giving up 
the whole of the booty is this, that the 
troops may be rendered . more valiant and 
brave ; but this is not usual among other 
European nations, or any of the nations of 
the seven climates. 

The caste of English avoid self-praise, 
and talking of their own exploits they con* 
sider disgraceful. If an officer who has 
grately distinguished himself by his enter- 
prize and courage in any victory, be asked 
the particulars of the engagement, he sim- 
ply states the facts as they occurred. If 
another person greatly extols the conduct 
and valour of that officer (before him), he 

immediately 



Digitized by 



Google 



143 

immediately casts his eyes on the soles^ 
of his feet, and remains silent, and from 
extreme bashfulness the perspiration dis-- 
tils from his face. The £nglish in general, 
then, do not at all relish to be praised before 
their face ; they are rather annoyed at it, 
and dislike it. They consider an egotist 
a coward, and sycophants and flatterers^ 
liars. Under these circumstances, in their 
assemblies flattery is unusual. 

Egotists and flatterers are despicable in 
the opinion of a man of sense and under^ 
standing. Plattery is certainly a very 
foolish practice : however, the sepoys and 
officers of Hindustan, and particularly of 
the city of Delhi, think that flattery and 
egotism add to their consequence ; as, for 
instance, if a person by a thousand labours 
happen to kill a fox, be then goes about 
every where, and proclaims with a loud 
voice that he had slaughtered a tiger, and 
in a most valiant manner twists his mous-* 

taches, 



Digitized by 



Google 



144 

taches, and swelling with piide^ his vesture 
does not suffice. He accounts the deed^ 
of others, when placed in comparison 
with his own bravery, as nothing; nay, 
even makes out Rustum* to have been 
decrepit. 

When a dispute arises concerning goods- 
or land, both the plaintiff and defendant 
appear in court, and each party employs 
a lawyer. Months and years sometimes^ 
elapse before judgment is given, in which 
case both parties e:s:pend immense sums 
in lawyers' fees, and in the e;xpenses 
of court. The party against whom the 
decision is given pays the expenses of the 
other. In a similar maoner to the above 
a court has been instituted in Calcutta. 

The regulations and usages of the court 
are as follows. There is no respect of per* 
sons; neither bribes nor gifts are permitted : 
if one party be accused of bribery, even 

although 

♦ The Persian Hercules. 



Digitized by 



Google 



145 

although he may have (in justice) the best 
of the cause, yet the judges immediately 
imagine that he is making false allegations. 
If a prince or nobleman ride through a 
field (of grain) and' tread down the crop, 
then whatever was the extent of damage 
the farme? stated he had sustained, the 
prince or nobleman would be called into 
court, and compelled to pay the farmer 
ten times more than the amount of the 
injury suffered, besides an additional 
fine would be imposed. The intention of 
this regulation is, that no rich man may 
have power to oppress a poor one. 

In England a person cannot escape the 
punishment for murder by paying a fine, 
as in Bengal, where the institutes of 
Imaum A boo Muhumud and Imaum 
Huneefa are still followed, by which a 
murderer may escape if the relatives of 
the murdered man choose to allow him : 
if they do not, the criminal pays to Go- 

u vemment 



Digitized by 



Google 



146 

vemment a certain fine, and the judges 
pardon him. But in England the judges 
first maturely deliberate in a case of mur- 
der, and where a creation of God has 
been destroyed, the criminal is consigned 
to execution. 

For theft the law is not similar to that 
of Muhumud, who orders the hand to be 
cut off if a greater amount than eight annas 
has been stolen. In England, the person 
who plunders, using at the same time 
force and violence, subjects himself to be 
executed. The English say that the pu- 
nishment of the thief is not to be abated 
according to the amount of property he 
may have abstracted, for when a person 
intends to steal he will take as much as 
he can get, and if he could have laid hold 
of more than he actually carried off, he 
would have taken that likewise. A thief, 
then, is deserving of death. Notwith- 
standing this being the law, diggers of 

mines, 



Digitized by 



Google 



147 

mines,* cutters of knots,f and pick- 
pockets abound in England. 

Europeans usually keep their silver, 
gold, &c., also their bank-notes and watch, 
in their pockets, and never go abroad 
without money ; and they are in the habit 
of going to see spectacles and of frequent- 
ing the theatre with a sum of money 
about them ; therefore in crowds cut- 
purses and pickpockets cut open people's 
pockets, and speedily transfer the pro- 
perty into their own. If, however, the 
owner of the effects is aware of what is 
going on, and is able to seize the thief 
with the goods on him, he is hanged. 

There are mounted robbers in England, 

who commit their depredations on the 

highway. Some of these men are the 

u 2 sons 

* In India, thieves are in the habit of digging under 
the walls of houses to effect their depredations* 

f Orientals tie their money in a knot in a corner of their 
handkerchief. 



Digitized by 



Google 



146 

^ons of wealthy patents, but vrho l»viiig 

jsquandered away their patrimony at the 

gaming-^table and with debauched living, 

poverty ov^takes them, and being unable 

to turn their hands to a useful employ^ 

m6nt, they subsist by robbing. They lie in 

wait on the open commons, in forests, and 

in places removed from the habitations of 

men. When they observe a carriage ap* 

proaching, they quickly gallop up with a 

pistol in their hand, which they present 

at the head of whoever is riding in the 

vehicle, and order him to surrender what-* 

ever he has got about him, if he wishes to 

escape with his life : he then delivers to 

the robber whatever property he may have. 

A certain great man travelling in his car«- 

riage, observed at a distance a horseman 

approaching him, who was advancing at 

a quicker rate than either the lightning or 

wind. The great man was immediately 

aware that it was a highwayman. He 

then 



Digitized by 



Google 



149 r ' 

then quickly loaded a pistol and pot it 
loto his pocket. The highwayman came* 
up, and presenting a pistol, said, *^ sur* 
** render what you've got." The gentle- 
man put his hand in his pockety and pro* 
ducing his pistol, said, *^ take this,'^ and 
shot the robber. Another highwayman, 
after having plundered a man of bank* 
notes and other property, left him. The 
person robbed speedily arriving in town, 
went to the Bank, and having related 
what had befallen him, gave likewise a 
description of his notes. When the high* 
wayman came to the Bank to get change 
from the bankers, he was immediately 
secured, sent to prison, and after being 
tried, was executed. The notes were re- 
turned to the owner. 

The courts of law have nothing to do 
with cases of (simple) fornication, unless 
a woman complains that she was forcibly 
violated. When a man is convicted, of 

having 



Digitized by 



Google 



150 

having committed a rape he is sentenced 
to be executed. Besides the sentence of 
death, there is no other punishment for 
rape or robbery. If a man and woman 
commit fornication in a retired house, or 
even in any place whatever, they may do 
so with impunity, and neither the cutwal* 
nor the censor can take any notice of it ; 
for it is a common saying, ** what business 
" has the superintendent inside a house ?*' 
In England it is completely the reverse of 
what it is in this country, for there the 
cutwal and censor have little or nothing 
to do, and have not the power of seizing 
either a fornicator or a fornicatress, what- 
ever people may say. In the higher 
classes of society a faux-^ym is sometimes 
committed. If it comes to be generally 
known, it causes great shame to be felt 
amongst modest and chaste ladies. Both 

the 

* In India one of the duties of the chief officer of police 
(the cutwal) is to prevent licentiousness. 



Digitized by 



Google 



351 

jtbe lady and gentleman are reproached by 
rich and poor ; and women of reputation, 
during their life-time, never again see the 
lady, whom they expel from their society. 
In a case of adultery, if a husband catch 
his wife in the fact with another man, 
and if he kill them both with a sword or 
other weapon, he will be justified in doing 
so. If, however, the husband, when he 
discovers them, has no weapon in his 
band, and goes to bring one, and in the 
mean time the adulterer and adulteress 
leave one another and deny that they had 
been together, then the husband is unable 
to kill them with impunity : if he did so 
he would suffer death. If the husband 
bring an action into court, his plaint will 
not be attended to unless it be substan- 
tiated by creditable witnesses. 

A French priest once presented a trans- 
lation of the New Testament to Acber 
Badshah, in which there was the following 

narrative. 



Digitized by 



Google 



152 

narrative. Certain Jewish Doctors, in 
order to reprove Hussurut Eesa (with 
whom be peace), brought before him a 
woman who had committed adultery. 
They then thought of a difficult question 
to propose to him, and said in their hearts, 
if the prophet orders this woman to be 
stoned I then we will answer, " you enjoin 
" the people to have clemency, to be 
^^ compassionate and tender«hearted : this 
" then is in direct opposition to what you 
** teach ; your words and deeds have no 
" relation to one another ; wherefore, then, 
" would you kill one of God's creatures ^* 
Again, if he give her absolution, we will 
reply, " you make no difierence between 
" good and evil; the precepts of our 
" books, and every law, it appears, hath 
" departed from the world.'' After having 
consulted together in the above manner, 
they brought the adulteress before the 
Hussurut, and asked, ** what are your 

" orders 



Digitized by 



Google 



1.53 

" orders regarding this adulteress/' The 
Hussurut was then sitting in the synagogue 
with his head depressed ; he answered, 
^^ it is commanded that a woman (of this 
^' description) shall be stoned ; let him, 
" then, who during his whole life-time 
'^ hath committed no sin, lift the first 
" stone/* Having said this, he wrote 
with his ficnger on the ground. Upon 
hearing the above they all held down their 
heads from shame, and departed out of 
the synagogue, so that no one remained 
with the Hussurut besides the woman. 
Then looking towards her, he asked, 
" where have all these people gone, and 
" what have they determined upon regard- 
" ing you ?'' Then the woman answered, 
** they went out one by one, and said 
'^ nothing with respect to me/' The pro- 
phet said, " do you likewise go : I have 
" nothing more to say to you but this, 
'^ repent and do not again commit this 

" wickedness/' 

X The 



Digitized by 



Google 



154 

The morals and disposition of HilMurut 
Muhumud (on whom be the blessing and 
peace of God) are thus shewn. On a 
certain day, when the Hussurut was 
sitting along with some of his companions, 
a woman (a fornicatress) presented herself 
before him, and said, " I have been guilty 
*' of a (wicked) deed, I therefore trust 
" that you will execute on me what the 
" law enjoins, in order that I may escape 
" the punishment at the last day/' The 
Hussurut, turning his face from her, 
looked in the opposite direction. How- 
ever, she continued and said, " what are 
" your orders with respect to my case ?" 
Then the Hussurut, casting his eyes 
towards her, perceived that she was preg- 
nant, and said, ^' until you have been 
" delivered your punishment i$ deferred/' 
After the birth of her child, the woman, 
taking the infant in her arms, came and 
presented herself before the Hussurut, and 

said. 



Digitized by 



Google 



155 

said, " the child is now born:" the Hus- 
surut replied, ** until the child be weaned 
" your punishment is remitted." Some 
time after, when the child had been wean- 
ed (and the woman had presented herself 
as before), the Hussurut said, " your 
^* child is now devoid of understanding, 
" but when it is seven years of age chas- 
" tisement will be inflicted on you/' 
Again (at the expiration of the seven years) 
the woman came : then the Hussurut 
commanded, " your child is now young 
" and unwise : until it attain the age of 
** puberty j'ou cannot be punished ; for 
" besides their own parents, there is no 
** one who will be kind and attentive to 
" children, or who will rear, protect, and 
" educate them, or who will take any 
" charge of them." Then one of his com- 
panions said, " Oh, Hussurut, this wo- 
" man time after time comea to you and 
" troubles you ; I will take charge of 
X 2 " the 



Digitized by 



Google 



156 

^^ the child, and rear and educate, it 
" and let the -woman's petition be com- 
" plied with/' At this the eye of the 
Hussurut grew red with anger, and 
looking wrathfuUy on his companion, he 
said, " who told you that you might take 
^^ charge of the education and rearing of 
" this child? Do you not know that I 
" have always been endeavouring to find 
" some pretence to procrastinate the pu- 
" nishment (of the mother) ?" At this his 
companion was much afraid and ashamed. 
This, then, was the compassion and jus- 
tice of his Highness Muhumud. 



Digitized by 



Google 



157 



CHAPTER XIV. 

The ooanner in which Children are educated in England...... 

How the English spend their time The East-India 

Company. 

The higher classes of society in England 
educate their children in a totally different 
manner from that of the people of Hin- 
doostan (of the same rank), where the 
teacher is retained as a servant in the 
house,, in order that there may be no 
chance of the influence of the eyil eye 
falling on the child. In England it is 
usual for people of rank to send both 
their sons and daughters to a distant place 
of education. * 

First of all they are taught the letters of 
the alphabet, which are written on a board ; 
then an easy lesson is given them ; after 

this 



Digitized by 



Google 



158 

this they are taught to read pleasant tales, 
fitted to amuse children. The school- 
books have been rendered so easy that 
the tyro has no difficulty in acquiring 
knowledge. From the invention of print- 
ing books have so increased, that, for 
example, if a person wishes a hundred 
copies of a work, he will be able to 
purchase that number in a single shop. 
Books in this country (as the Shah 
Namah)* that cost one hundred and fifty 
rupees, are procured in Europe for the 
sum of ten or twelve. 

The people of wealth in England, com- 
mencing at the age of four years, keep 
their sons and daughters constantly era- 
ployed in writing, reading, and acquiring 
knowledge ; they never permit them to be 
idle. If a man or woman be. unacquaint- 
ed 

* A celebrated epic poem, containing a history of the 
kings of Persia. Its author, Firdousee, flourished about 
1000 A. D. 



Digitized by 



Google 



159 

ed« with the musical art, be unable to 
duDce or ride, he or she is accounted by 
people of substance as descended from 
a mean parentage, and taunts and re- 
proaches are not spared. They then say, 
'^ such a one's parents have been poor, and 
" being unable to pay the cost of educa- 
" tion, their children are therefore ignorant 
" of every thing/' Those ladies, particu- 
larly, who can neither dance nor sing, are 
considered in a very inferior light ; they 
will never get well married. To be brief, 
the manner in which the English are edu- 
cated and reared is totally different from 
that of India, for the sons qf some of our 
great men and nobles are taught gratui- 
tously. At school they acquire a thousand 
bad habits, when they are supposed to be 
attaining knowledge. However, all that 
is disregarded by our men of rank, and 
(gratuitous education) is not accounted 

dis- 



Digitized by 



Google 



160 

disgraceful. In England^ however, moi^ey 
is expended in the acquirement of wis- 
dom. 

The people of Hindoostan reproach the 
Europeans with being hard-hearted to- 
wards their offspring, because they send 
them to a distance to be educated ; yet 
the fact is, that this hard-heartedness of 
parents towards their children is the 
greatest Ikindness they can shew them, for 
from Tendering them adepts in the arts 
and sciences, they spend their days in a 
pleasant and agreeable manner. In this 
country, the manner in which parents 
shew kindness towards their children is 
really nothing else than injuring them as 
much as is possible ; for from not sending 
them from home to be educatjed, they 
continually remain ignorant, and lead 
a vicious and depraved life. 

The poor peoplie (of Engla,nd) send their 

children 



Digitized by 



Google 



161 

children to be taught in the town schools, 
and pay at the rate of a rupee per week,* 
For the girls there are separate schools. 

I saw that the boys sit on a form in. one 
line, and in this way studied their lessons. 
The teacher, with a leathern strap in his 
hand, heard the scholars repeat their 
tasks, commencing at one end and going 
down the whole line. IVhen a boy 
committed a mistake in his reading, the 
teacher, without the least pity or remorse, 
struck him on the back with the strap 
to such a degree, that he wounded the 
limbs of these silver forms and jessamine* 
legged youths* Although tliis appears to 
be cruelty, yet this saying is nevertheless 
true : 

<< The tyranny of the teacher is better than the Other's love.'* 

The lower orders, particularly in Scotland, 
are all able to read and write, with the 

Y excep- 

* In Lidia the children of the lower orders are eduoited 
ibr )i|df a rupee per mensem. 



Digitized by 



Google 



162 

exception^of those whose parents cEDoot 
afford to send them to school, or who are of 
weak intellect and unable to learn. After 
the children of the poor have acquired a 
sufficiency of learning, they are then put to 
different trades ; as one becomes a gold- 
smith, another an ironsmith, a third a 
shoemaker, and a fourth a tailor. Eu- 
ropeans can learn whatever trade they 
choose. For an example, a man has four 
sons ; the eldest is a goldsmith, the second 
a carpenter, the third is a shoemaker, and 
thefourth a smith. Now.the Mussielmans of 
Hindoostan are ashamed to learn different 
trades. For instance, if a man's father 
happened to have followed a mean employ- 
ment, the son will not follow his father s 
steps, but says, " I'll be a soldier.'' The 
Hindoos act in a completely different 
manner : they all follow the same profes- 
sion that their ancestors did. 
Both in France and England I observed a 

broad 



Digitized by 



Google 



163 

broad and spacious house, where orphans, 
and poor boys and girls, a,re educated. 
Those people in the city and neighbour- 
hood who are in very indigent circum-^ 
stances, and have little to subsist on, being 
unable to* maintain their children, take 
them to the above-iiientioned house, and 
jgive them in charge to the people there. 
It very frequently happens that women of 
loose habits produce children, because 
according to the tenets of the English it 
is a great crime to cause abortion ; and 
if it be proved that a woman has willingly 
injured the child in her womb, she will 
suffer death. For this reason, after the 
birth of children (by these women) from 
shame they wait until the curtain of night 
conceals them, and then take the child 
and place it at the door of that house, and 
there leave it. There are thousands of 
boys and girls of this description in that 
mansion. They are first of all properly 

Y 2 edu- 



Digitized by 



Google 



164 

educated, and then are instructed in di£^ 
ferent trades. 

The wise men of the English say, that 
•^ the acquiring of worldly wealth causes 
^* life to pass pleasantly and happily, if 
" there be also a searching after wisdom 
" and increase of knowledge. Worldly 
** riches ought not to be appropriated for 
*• eating and drinking alone, or for leading 
** a luxurious life, or for collecting toge- 
** ther a great number of women, or for 
*^ sitting and viewing dances night and 
** day.** It & strange, however, that the 
noblemen of Hindoostan who may happen 
to be wealthy, coi^tantly remain shut up 
with their women, and unlike men, coquet 
and flirt as if they were females. On their 
heads they wear a Jonadar''^ turban^ and 
liave their trowsers and sleeves plaited, 
and wear a jama like the gown of a female^ 
4sind apply perfumes and rouge to their 

breasts, 

* A particular mode of tying on the turban. 



Digitized by 



Google 



J65 

breasts^ and missee^ upon their lips: upon 
their teeth and eyes they rub antinK)ny, 
and on the palms of their hands they apply 
hennah ; they tie their hair in a knot 
behind^ and scent it and wear it long. 
Notwithstanding all these effeminate airs, 
they go abroad with a numerous retinue , 
with great pomp and display, like warriors. 
When they go out in state there is a 
mighty ceremony : there are rockets, and 
standards, and nukeebs,-f- and chobdars^ 
and pursuivants and attendants of all sorts, 
who call out with a loud voice, " keep off ! 
keep off!" and " poish ! poish !'*§ and intreat 
for long life and prosperity (to their lord). 
These are the customs of this time amongst 
the noblemen of India* In Europe such 
ceremony and state is considered useless 

and 

' * A. powder with which the teeth frc are stained Uack^ 
it Is prepared fiom vitrioL 

f Servants who proclaim their master's titles. 

% Mace^bearers. § Go! Go! 



Digitized by 



Google 



166 

and foolish, and such a retinue would be 
mocked and laughed at. In fine, the peo- 
ple of England, until the age of thirty, 
apply themselves to business. They travel 
and view the wonders and curiosities of 
the world ; and after they have made some 
money, they then marry and remain at 
home, and ceasing to wander about, they 
live (quietly) with their wives. 

It is a distressing thing to see how the 
people of this country manage. First of 
all the parents give- their son in marriage 
when he is very young. If they do not 
happen to have been successful in trade, 
&e. and are in want of money, they then, 
in order to get their children married, by 
a thousand searches and trouble borrow 
money ; if not, they importune (their 
acquaintances), and collect what they 
think will suffice. In this way, they 
consider the completion of the marriage 
of their offspring to be a thing of the first 

importance. 



Digitized by 



Google 



167 

importance. If after the marriage of the 
boy he has no means of living, he is then 
necessitated to travel to a great distance 
in order to get some employment, and in 
a miserable plight traverses many coun- 
tries. Some people then, after a year, 
and commonly not till after many years 
of absence, are able to enjoy the society 
of their wives : the heart of the wife is 
therefore sorrowful by reason of the separa- 
tion, and during the time that the husband 
is absent she will perhaps form bad inten- 
tions ; therefore it happens, that some- 
times when the husband is removed the 
wife commits wickedness, and takes no 
care to preserve her husband from shame 
and disgrace. 

In the impassioned poetry of Persia, 
and also in the Hindee, Birj, and Ben- 
gallee, there are many poems regarding 
the anxiety and grief attendant on separa- 
tion. The £nglish consider a separation 

from 



Digitized by 



Google 



168 

from their wives, like the above, as 
using them very tyranically ; and even in 
a religious point of view it is considered 
bad. In this case, assuredly, justice is on 
the side of the English. 

After the English have made a suf- 
ficiency to maintain themselves com- 
fortably, then during their whole life, 
even though it be extended to seventy or 
eighty years, they apply themselves night 
and day to add to their stock of knowledge, 
and never remain a minute idle. They 
are not like the people of this country, 
who repeat Hindee and Persian poems in 
praise of a mistress's face, or descriptive of 
the qualities of the wine, of the goblet, 
and of the cup-bearer, and who pretend 
to be in love. 

The English are naturally good ma- 
nagers : they never throw away their 
money, and reckon it a very disgraceful 
thing to be in debt. The middle ranks of 

society 



Digitized by 



Google 



169 

sodety place their maney in tbe heaads of 
a banker., and tec^ive the intereat of it 
monthly : the principal therefor^ remdins 
untouched^ They are such a calculating 
race, that it often happens that a wealthy 
nian has only one inab servant to attend 
upon him, who shaves and dresses him ; 
besides the footman he has a female cook 
and a chambermaid, and for the horses 
there is a single groom : the whole busU 
ness of the house, then, is carried on by 
tltese servants. The master's time is oe** 
cupied abroad, ib making Excursions afid 
id hunting : his wife takes charge of all 
the accounts, superintends tlie household 
expenditure^ and has the general manage*- 
ment of every thing. 

Many rich people who have fanulids 
keep no carriage : when they require one 
they hire a bazar carriage. People of 
rank, and even princes, do not think 
themselves at all lowered by walking the 

i distance 



Digitized by 



Google 



170 

distance of a quarter or half a coss in the 
streets and bazar, either duriog tibe day or 
night : taking a stick in their hand, they go 
abroad in plain clothes. They do not re- 
semble, in this respect, the rajahs and 
wealthy men of this country, who are 
attended by nukeebs, chobdars, esawuls,* 
foot and horse, rockets and standards, 
mah6 muratib,*!* and great pomp. Now 
the English consider the profusion, and the 
ceremony and state of the Indian retinues, 
as a most absurd and useless expenditure 
of money, and laugh at the people of this 
country for being such fools and block- 
heads. They say, if any one (in England) 
were to appear with a pompous retinue, 
the boys of the city and bazar would 
throw dirt upon his attendants, and 
would tauntingly clap their hands and 
throw stones. 
Amongst mankind in general vid:ues and 

vices 

* Officers of parade, 
f An honorary badge, being the figure of a fish. 



Digitized by 



Google 



171 

vices are always found : every nation con- 
siders some particular things sinful, or thiB 
contrary. 

Amongst the wise of Europe (or the 
English), to make use of the expression 
" God damn me '^ is considered very sinful. 
However, this oath is constantly on the 
tongues of the common people, whether 
they be amusing themselves, fighting, or 
in a passion ; but there are many learned 
men and philosophers, who during their 
whole lives have never made use of this 
oiath : for " God " means the Almighty, 
and ^^ danan '' his curse. In like manner, 
Musselmabs make use of the term 
** lanutoollah" (the curse of God), which 
is very wrong and highly improper. 
The religious amongst the Nazerenes say, 
that the pure name of God is only to be 
made use of in private during the time of 
prayer, and that it is highly disrespectful 
to make use of it in the public streets and 
z 2 bazar, 



Digitized by 



Google 



17« 
bazar, anii every hour, aod on all occa- 

4iOQS)» 

Again, amongst noblemen and people of 
tbe QQiiddle claas of society, it is considered 
yery wrong for one man to call another a 
liar or a thief. If during a dispute the 
one party call the other a thipf c^. li^„ it 
then becomes necessary that they both go 
out and fight with pistols: if, however,* 
ope of them refuse to fight, he is alvF>ays 
^fter regarded as a coward; both high 
^nd low tauntingly reproach him,, and he 
qannot again show his face amongst his 
q^m^miom* If one of the parties happen 
to fal] in the duel the other is obliged t<i fly 
tO; a foi^eign country, where he remains a 
^hort. time. The people of this, natiom 
Qi^nsider their: honour dearer to^ them than 
lifeitsqlf, 

Mai?iy people in gamblang lose all their 
priopfa'ty and effijctt, asj their household 
fnmitm&y ho«i£^. garden^ &e. tbe^r ai^ 

therefore 



Digitized by 



Google 



173 

therefore^ accounted uncommonly foolish. 
But what is strange, they still continue the 
same course; for it sometimes happens 
that they win as well as lose, and cmn 
sidering this occupation m the light of 
tradifig by sea, they try their luck in it. 
Some few there are who acquire riches by 
games of hazard, but how many are ruined 
and sunk in poverty. 

The East-India Company, The meat^- 
iiig of the word • company ' is a number 
of persons united for the execution of 
any thing. In England there are many 
companies, who all pay tribute to the 
kmg. 

The East-India Company consists of 
thousands of proprietors^ but the direct 
tofs alone have the management of every 
thing : they are twenty-four in number. 
It is their business to consult regarding 
the. gpyi^rnmant of their territories^ to 
examine papers, and t& calculia^te the 

profit 



Digitized by 



Google 



174 

profit aiid loss* After having been two 
or three years in office they are changed. 

The Company, being merchants, are pf 
an inferior grade and rank to the King% 
ministers ; and it is well known that when 
a captain of his Majesty's service comes 
to India he accounts himself far superior 
to a Company's colonel.* 

When the ships of the Company arrive 
in England they are exempted from duties. 
However, there-is a great search made for 

merchandize 

* This feeling is not so prevalent now fts formerly, and 
would cease altogether, if King's officers were allowed to 
share situations of emolument with the Company's. When 
anything is to be done, European troops get all the hard 
knocks : and it must necessarily excite jealousy and envy 
in the breasts of his Majesty's officers, to see the Company's 
enjoying the sweets of the service, whilst they are exduded 
from almost all staff appointments, being thereby deprived 
of every stimulus to exertion, as they have no hope of 
meeting a substantial reward. However, it ought not to 
be concealed, that owing to the difficulty of managing 
European soldiers in the east, the removal of King's officers 
from their corps would be attended with great hazard. 



Digitized by 



Qoogle 



175 

merchandize (among the effects of the 
passen^rs) ; as Bengal cloths,! silks, 
opium, &c. No private individual b able 
to take these articles to Europe without 
first paying a heavy duty. Even a noble- 
man will have all his effects seized, and 
be fined besides in five hundred rupees, if 
a silk handkerchief, a tolah* of opium, or 
a piece of silk be found in his trunks. In 
like manner this happened to me. I had a 
number of handkerchiefs in my trunk, and 
in that of Mrs. Peacock a piece of mu- 
shujur was discovered, as- 1 have formerly 
mentioned y for this reason all the effects of 
Mrs. Peacock and Captain S., along with 
the packet itself, were detained at the Cus- 
tom-house for fifteen days, and even after 
we had arrived in London, our effects were 
not released for a month. The matter 
underwent an investigation in a court of 
law ; (and it came out) that a Custom- 
house 

♦ 1 Tolah is=Gr. Tr. 179.6666. 



Digitized by 



Google 



176 

house officer being in a state of intoxica- 
tioD bad biehaved rudely to Mrs, Peacock, 
and had struggled with her. . In conse« 
quence of this having occurred, Mr. 
Peacock's things were given up to him. 
Concerning my handkerchiefs, the gentle- 
men of the court said, ^ this is but a small 
'matter and they were not brought here 

* for sale. The Moonshee being a Hin* 

* doostanee, and never having been in £ng-> 
\ land before, is of course unacquainted 
^ with our manners and customs, we there- 

* fore pardon his offence.^ 



Digitized by 



Google 



177 



CHAPTER XV. 

Of the Food of the English Of Flowers Jims 

Manner of Travelling Agriculture Horses 

Wild Animals Dogs. 

I WANT ability, to enumerate all the 
different articles for eating and drinking 
which can be procured in England. 

** If you wish to get fowl's milk you can procure it there." 

Though there are great varieties of 
flowers in Hindoostan and Persia, yet even 
in England I saw the ghool mhendee,^ 
shubbo,^ goolab,^ taj-i-khooroos,^ lalah,^ 
nafurman,^ gend/ belah,® mograh^ nufr 
gus,^^ joe,^^ and chumbelee.^^ Besides 

2 A these, 

8. Jasminum zambas. 

9. Double Arabian jas- 
mine. 



1. Impatiens balsamica. 

2. Polyanthes tuberosa. 

3. Common rose. 

4. The cockscomb flow- 
er (amaranthus). 

5. Tulip. 

6. Unknown. 
?• Marigold. 



10. Narcissus or the eye 
of a mistress. 

11. Jasminum auricula- 
tum. 

12. Unknown. 



Digitized by 



Google 



178 

these, many white, red, yellow, and 
blue flowers, whose names I am unac- 
quainted with. There is one, however, 
the gool-i-carnation, of a red colour, con* 
cerning which I recollect the following 
couplet in praise of a mistress : 

« The rose is red, the violet's blue ; 
** Carnation's sweet, and so are you." 

I observed thousands of roses, which were 
all very large; and in other countries I 
never saw such large roses. 

The country is so well cultivated, that 
there is not a biswah,* or even a yard 
of ground, on which crops are not raised, 
as I have formerly stated. I travelled 
both in England and Scotland, but I 
never saw an extensive plain without 
cultivation, nor one where an army of ten 
or twelve thousand men, or even one 
thousand or five hundred men with their 

followers 

* 20biswahs=l katha; 20 kathas^l beegah ; and 1 
beegah=120 feet square. 



Digitized by 



Google 



179 

followers and effects (like as in thiis coun- 
try) could halt (in consequence of the 
abundant cultivation). 

In England, at every stage there is a 
large and extensive house of accommoda- 
tion, where corn and hay (for the horses) 
and meat and drink for the people can be 
had. The traveller has no trouble as to 
cooking, and every thing will be provided 
for him ; and if any one should be desirous 
of having a censors lectin even that ac- 
commodation can be afforded. 

There are stage-coaches, which change 
horses every five or six coss, and these 
coaches travel both night and day, and 
whatever sleep or rest a ftian may re- 
quire it is only got whilst sitting in the 
conveyance. The ground is passed over so 
rapidly, that in a day and a night seventy 
or eighty coss are traversed. At the dif- 
ferent inns where they stop, both breakfast 
and dinner are ready waiting them. (The 
2 A 2 coach) 



Digitized by 



Google 



180 

coach) stops until breakfast or dinner is 
despatched ; but a quarter of an hour is all 
that is allowed. 

At every inn many horses are kept: 
when, therefore, a person undertakes a 
journey, he goes first of all to the inn^ 
and pays before-hand the amount of fare, 
according to the distance he has to travel. 

The post-coach is a large vehicle, in 
which four persons can travel sitting face 
to face ; they travel in the same manner 
as was before described. Poor people 
usually hire horses and travel in that 
way : those in very indigent circumstances 
are of course oblig;ed to walk. 

The husbandry is dissimilar to that 
of this country. The soil in England is 
commonly poor and stony : a rich soil is 
seldom met with. First of all the ground 
is cleared by picking up the stones upon 
it, then the dung of cows and horses, being 
mixed with straw, is spread upon it : after 

this. 



Digitized by 



Google 



181 

this, with great labour they p^pare it for 
receiving the seed. They raise evary 
variety of grain on ground prepared as 
above. 

I saw in many different places a white 
earth, which in English is termed chalk ; 
also a good deal of that red earth which 
the Hindoos name geroo. 

The usual mode of agriculture is as 
Ibllows. For four months in the year, 
during the winter, the groutid is bound up 
with frost. In the month of Jet,* the sun 
being in the constellation Aries, its heat 
causes the ice to become wate*, by which 
the earth is moistened. The farmers th«i 
plough up the soil, some using a two- 
horse, and others a four-^horse plough : 
they then sow the seed of barley, &c*, and 
in four or five months the grain is ready 
for the sickle. 

In England.^ rain falls in a greater or 

less 

* Name of a BengaUee month. 



Digitized by 



Google 



182 

less quantity during twelve months of the 
year, but there is only one crop raised 
annually. It is different in Hindoostan,. 
in which there are two crops annually: 
one is the rubbee harvest, the other the 
khureef. 

The horses of England, as to bulk and 
height, would make two of the horses of 
India : much more work is got out of 
them too : their price is also less. The 
lower order keep horses for their carts 
and ploughs, and for carrying burdens. 
The work which the people of this coun- 
try do by means of oxen, asses, camels, 
and bu£faloes, is performed in England by 
horses alone. The English, when they 
hear that the people of India use bullocks 
for riding upon, for carrying burdens, and 
for dragging carts, ail3 greatly amused and 
wonder at it. 

In England it is usual to castraite 
almost all the horses, and to cut off their 

tails. 



Digitized by 



Google 



183 

tails. The explanation which I heard 
given for castrating and docking the horses 
is as follows: — a horse with a long tail is 
very troublesome to his rider from flapping 
it about ; and they castrate them because 
women, both of high and low degree, ride 
upon horseback, and they would be 
ashamed to be seen upon a stallion. 

The roadsters and race-horses are very 
fleet : they are not so fat as the others. 
In England, Arab and Persian horses are 
held in great estimation, and fetch long 
prices. 

In England there are neither tigers, 
wolves, leopards, bears, rock-snakes, ser- 
pents, lynxes, nor jackals. They say, 
however, that formerly there were difierent 
kinds of carnivorous and troublesome 
animals, which occasioned annoyiEince to 
the people, therefore a certain number of 
men were appointed to traverse the forests 
and hills: these exterminated the dan- 
gerous 



Digitized by 



Google 



184 

gerons animals^ so that no^ there is no 
vestige of them. However, the deceitful 
and cunning foxes^ contrived to save their 
lives, by concealing themselves in holes. 

There is a story exemplifying the sly- 
ness and cunning of the fox which is cur- 
rent in England « A certain person who 
lived in a town having constructed a 
wood6n house ten or twelve cubits in 
height, kept hii^ ducks in it, and always 
carefully fastened the door at night. A 
fox lay constantly in wait at a short dis- 
tance to carry off the ducks, and was 
continually on the watch to do so. One 
night the owner of the ducks inconsi- 
derately left the door untied, and pro- 
ceeded homewards, and the door remained 
open like the eyes of a lover (at night), 
resembling likewise the doors of the gene- 
rous. The crafty fox having now got an 
opportunity, quicker than the lightning or 
wind entered the house, and laid hold of 

the 



Digitized by 



Google 



laaf 

the necks of the ducks in such a maiiMr 
that they could not make a noise.. He 
then carried off the whole to a distance, 
aqd buried them in a sandy spot and 
smoothed the ground over them ; in thia 
way providing for himself a magasine ot 
provisions. Good God! what foreaight 
the European foxes hare regarding their 
living t Alas, alas I for we neither lay up 
a store for the present life nor foe o«r 
future state. In^ the morning, when the 
owner of the ducks caxae, be could not 
see a single one, at which be was greatly 
surprised. A number of people then cqU 
lected, 9nd they all commenced aearching 
in ev^y direction for the dqcks ; at la9t 
they came to the place where they bad 
been bitried, and observing a feather of 
one of them appearing above grounds tb«y 
pulled up one of the d»d ducks ; t^j 
then dug up the ground and found t^« 
whole flock. The owner was very aw- 

2 B rowful, 



Digitized by 



Google 



186 

rowful, and grieved at what had hap- 
pened ^ 

Elephants^ camels, &c. are sent to 
Europe from this country, and are kept 
in a large building. The people of Eng- 
land consider these animals as very ex^ 
traordinary creations, they therefore flock 
from far and near to see the spectacle. 
They first give at the door of the building 
&ne or two rupees, and then go inside and 
see the exhibition. This, then, is another 
way of raising money. 

The dogs of England are greatly cele- 
brated : they a^e taught to perform many 
vonderful and surprising things, .which 
the common people of this country do not 
believe a word of. 

' I saw many varieties of the dog species, 
both small and great, and water-spaniels 
and pointers, which (last) astonished me. 
One day I went out shooting on the plain 
near the city of : Edinburgh, accompanied 

by 



Digitized by 



Google 



187 

by the son of a Mn Sergeant and a gar-^ 
dener : it was in the month of iKatut^ M^beit 
the barley and wheat ate cut down. Mr; 
S. had with him a small pointer, which 
kept ahead of us at a short distance off; 
we followed after him. The dog hunted 
about in every direction for game, which 
be endeavoured to discover by the scent^ 
but he was unsuccessful . in finding any. 
All at once, however, we came upon a field 
in which there were ten or twelve par- 
tridgear feeding amongst the grass. Imr 
mediately the dog scented them he stood 
still, at the distance of twenty cubits from 
them : at one moment he looked towards 
his master, and the next he depressed his 
head. Mr. S., as soon as he observed him 
frqta a distance^ knew that he was point- 
ing at game, He then speedily advanced, 
but could not discover the birds in front; 
he therefore cast an angry glance at the 
dog : which advancing ten paces, stood 
2 B 2 still 



Digitized by 



Google 



188 

•till again ; for be treSi kjaetir tin r<t«satl 
that iuh tnastte tt^as displeased mth fatixi^ 
which . WHS ifirom not se^g the gatne^ fdr 
(said he to himtelf)) ^^ mj in^ter thiiili$ 
f^ thatlamdeoeiviBghioL'' Then Mr. & 
hating gobe on a shott distatace farther^ 
still oould not observe anything ; he tber^ 
ibre again looked in an aikgry mailner at 
the dog, which vfeat forward a short way 
and again pointed* Mn S« bontinned to 
follow him: still there were no sigtis of 
the game, fm thej were anlbngst wheat 
stubble^ whidh was yery high, the birds 
were thbrefote completelj hidden by it 
Hie dog's tnaster then got into a great 
rage, and the pointer being afraid of hi^ 
iife i^an in upon the game. On ithich the 
oorey immediately rose. Mn S4 fired and 
brought down a brace of birds ; the gar- 
dener likewise knocked one down. Mn 
Sergeant knew that Mussdmand will not 
isat teeat that has not been regularly sacrifi- 
ced, 



Digitized by 



Google 



189 

oed,* he therefore brought the three par^ 
tridges to me and desired me to saorifioe 
then : after 1 hod done so he. gave ih6m 
aU to tue^ When I came to eat the game I 
foond the meat to be very ta^fal and 
savoery. Captain S*^ upon hearing that 
Wfe had bugged some partridges^ and also 
tlie ta^aner in which they liad been dis^- 
posed of» said in a bad humour, ^^ you 
^* had bt^ter have given me one or two of 
«* them» for they -tire eaten by our caste*^ 
I replied, ^^ If I had known that, I would 
" have &edt you the whole three/' 

For huiitiog the fofx and hare larger 
^eies of dogs are used. Truly there is 
a great i'eMmblance between the naturefc 

of 

* Whilst cutting the throat of a bird Musselmans repeat 
the fbUolfrilig sentence: 

^ Nouae to on uz baha be hazil teiur, 
" BisraiUah uBa hu uckbur." 

<< I intend to sacrifice this bird in the name of God the 
Ahnighty." 



Digitized by 



Google 



190 

of dogs: and men^ which is shewn in the 
way the former hunt 

The manner in which the rich hunt 
with large dogs is as follows: A number of 
people subscribe and keep perhaps a hun- 
dred dogs. When there is to be a hunt, 
a hundred or fifty men assemble on the 
plain, every one mounted on a fleet steed. 
The huntsman, taking the dogs: along with 
him, is also mounted: he carries a horn 
in his hand. The pack is then let looser 
and the dogs separate and beat about in 
the jungles and on the common in search 
of the game. When the huntsman sounds 
his horn, although the dogs be ever so 
far off, the moment they hear the blast 
they immediately collect round him: 
again, upon his making a sign they go 
off in search of the game. When a deer 
happens to be started they follow after it, 
and never give up the pursuit. During 
the chase the' horsemen follow the dogs 

constantly, 



Digitized by 



Google 



191 

coDStantljy and without the least fear; 
even to the distance of ten or twelve t<m ; 
they never pause a moment to take breath* 
If they come to a ditch on the plain, or a 
wall or fence the height of a man or even 
more, they oiuse the horse to clear these 
obstacles, and until the death of the stag 
they never allow themselves any rest. 

It is well known that the English, par- 
ticularly the wealthy among them, begin 
to teach their sons riding at the age of 
four years, and till their old age they 
take constant exercise on horseback* 
They account fatigue and laborious em- 
ployment honourable, and reckon laziness 
and indolence highly disgraceful. How 
different, in this respect, are the great 
men of this country, who employ them- 
selves in eating pooliios,* in drinking 
water cooled with saltpetre, and recline 
on soft velvet cushions and couches, and 

walk 

* A [mrticular mode of preparing a curry and rice. 



Digitized by 



Google 



192 

w»lk ftbottt blowing in » Biigkty con^ 
9equ«Qti{il mq^iQer^ They aie always re-^ 
posing theni8«ive9 ftn4 giving tb^pase^ves 
fii>e %irg» Of a tratb, that country ia 
which the soldier, the great Mid tiic hwi 
are affected and c^ominate in their naii^ 
mers, thea assuredly it will be subdued by 
a brave oation and a warlike people* 

** The person yrho strikes with th& sword, his name beeomes 
eiirrentn" 

The country will depart from the hands 
qf those people wlK)se manners are luxu- 
rious and unmanly ; 

«< Oh my life, a conceited man is not ornamented by ambi- 

« tion. 
« TItQse pqqpje only wjio are brave anfl ept^xfmwgi kwp 

" th^ir feet on this pl^.'' 



Digitized by 



Google 



198 



CHAPTER XVI. 

Of the Differences that aroee between Captain S. and the 

Author The reasons for his leaving England Hq 

arrives in India Conclusion. 

At this time among the people of Eng- 
land there were none who could either 
write or read the Persian language; how- 
ever, many were exceedingly anxious to 
learn. This being the case, Captain S., 
Doctor Fulton, Captain Steel, and othei? 
great people, having first consulted tog6- 
ther, then said to me, " you had better 
" remain in England for some time (as a 
" teacher)." After this Captain S. was con- 
stantly saying (the same thing) to me, and 
bringing messag<es from others, and con* 
tinually tempting me (as in the following 
manner). *• At presetit there is no one in 
" England who understands Persian ; many 
2 c " great 



Digitized by 



Google 



J94 

^^ great .men will therefore read Persian 
" with you, by which your interests will 
^' be greatly advanced. A remittance will 
" be constantly sent to Bengal for the 
" support of your wife and children ; and 
" if one woman of your religion be not 
" enough for you during the time you re- 
" main here, you can have a couple : do 
" not be uneasy about this/' 

At first, when he began to hold this 
sort of conversation with me, I imagined 
that it was merely intended as a trial of 
nay temper, I therefore never returned any 
answer. When, however, his importunities 
exceeded all bounds, and when his people 
began to taunt and asperse me on account 
of my faith and religion, thereby annoying 
me greatly, and sajing to me, " come and 
" eat along with us ;" also when Captain 
S. wished me to travel about in company 
with him, then I immediately began to 
doubt if Captain S/s civility and friendship 

would 



Digitized by 



Google 



195 

would ooQtinue. Therefore^ relying dn 
God's assistance, I began to return suitable 
answers, consistent with the tenets of my 
religion. 1 said, " poverty in my own 
" country is much better than wealth in 
^ this, and I consider the dark com- 
•* plexioned : women of Hindoostan far 
^ preferable to the fairy-faced damsels of 
'' England/' 

Captain S. then said, *^ I intend to tra- . 
^' vel, and to take you along with me. 
^* We will visit the different cbuntries of 
^ Europe, and both you and myself, from 
^^ .seeing the curiosities and spectacles of 
** the different countries will be benefited 
" and instructed/* Now Captain S/s 
real intention in travelling was this: 
ignorant people, upon seeing me dressed 
out in my usual manner, supposed that I 
was the brother of some Nouab or other 
in Bengal, and that Captain S. having been 
in Bengal bad become so great a man that 

2 c 2 he 



Digitized by 



Google 



196 

he was accomp^nted home, by the brother 
of a Noaab. For (on my account) his 
name was greatly celebrated, both in 
Edinburgh ;and: in the towns in the neighr 
bburhood, aiid by making a tour with me 
lie thought to add to his reputation. 

To his proposal I replied : ** I am cer* 
^* tainly very desirous of making the tour 
" of different countries, and of seeing the 
" curiosities and varieties which they con- 
*' tain, provided my servant be allowed to 
" accompany me for the purpose of cook- 
•* ing my victuals/' Captain S. answer- 
ed : " You and I will travel together in 
^^ one carriage, but to hire a separate con* 
" veyance for your servant would be 
**; attended with a very heavj^ expense : it 
^* will be far better if your servant reniaia 
^^ here^ and that you and myself eat 
" together/' To this I replied: "It 
^* would be in direct opposition to the 
" iaith of Islam to sacrifice our religion 

" for 



Digitized by 



Google 



197 

**; for the sftke of tte worW, you must ex* 
" cusc; and pardon mfi/or not complying 
" with what . you ide^i?e.'' Then said Cap^ 
tain S.: "I know the precepts of the Mus-^ 
^ selnianee.rfiligiQA on this head, which 
^* are, that wheukja per^oq i« on a JQuroey 
" he may live in whichever way necessity 
^^ compels him, it is immaterial in what 
" way.*' To this I anstvered, " I have my 
" free choice to live jn whatever way I 
'^ like, there is no compulsion in the 
" case. What is meant by * being com- 
" pelled hy necessity' is, that if any one 
" be jn bondage, ox forced, or the mis- 
^^ fortunes of hunger and famine befal 
^^ him^ he may then subsist in the best 
" way he can, without any disgrace. On 
^' thisi head the doctors of our religion say, 
^< that it is. highly praiseworthy to sacrU 
" fice life itsielf for the sake of religion^ 
^^ and that, in every case, it is necessary 
'> and .expedient to refrain from commit- 

" ting 



Digitized by 



Google 



198 

^^ ting those acts which the law ibr* 
*^ bids, in order that the world may not 
**.have the power to ruin our religions 
" principles/' 

To be brief, between Captain S. and 
myself there were constantly conversations 
like the above occurring. The Captain 
thought (I suppose) that I replied to him 
in the manner I did by reason of my folly, 
and from being proud of my religion; he 
therefore imagined that necessity would 
compel me to eat with him after a fast of 
a couple of days, for he thought it would 
be impossible for me to do otherwise. 
He in consequence made trial of his plan, 
which occasioned a world of trouble to me 
for a fortnight. However I was supported 
by a kind providence, so that my health 
was not at all injured by it. The nar- 
ration of the above is as follows : 
, At the time I am speaking of, there was 
in England a dispute between those who 

had 



Digitized by 



Google 



199 

had been members of council in Calcutta : 
they even submitted the cause of quaitel 
to the decision of a court of law. Some 
of them were suspected of having taken 
bribes from Nx)uab Muzuffur Jung, Mah- 
rajah Nund Koomar, and from Mahrajah 
Doulhah Ram. In order to substantiate 
this accusation by the examination of wit- 
nesses, Captain S.^ Captain Steel, and Mr. 
Peacock, being lately from Bengal, were 
summoned to attend the court. At this 
juncture Captain S. tormented me to go 
along with him, and said : " I. have got a 
" number of Persian letters by me which 
" are required to substantiate my evi- 
" dence, therefore it will be necessary for 
" you to go along with me, in order to 
" read and translate these letters.*' I ex-» 
cused myself, on the plea of not being 
able to go without my servant, and the 
inconvenience I would be put to from not 
being able to eat meat ;. but he would not 

listen 



Digitized by 



Google 



200 

listen to' my excuse, and said : ^^ in otd&t 
^* to i take your) servant along with ue it 
^ -will be necessary to hire a sepaitite 
^ conveyance, which will occasion a dela^y 
^^ of five or six days, and I am ordered ito 
^^ appear in the court in l^iOndoii three 
** vdays hence, therefore it is^ow too late 
** to send for another vehicle: you alone, 
^^ then, must come along with me, some* 
" how or other/' What could I do? 1 
was obliged to inconvenience 'myself ; I 
therefore reconciled myself to the wishes 
of the Almighty^ • and gating into the car- 
riage with Captain S«, we pursued our 
journey, merely taking with me my 
hooka and a small quantity of tobacco. 

After we had travelled constantly for a 
day and a -night ive haltied at an ihn. I 
then prepared with my owa hands iM)me 
sherbet and drank it ; and having made 
my dinner of a few almonds, raisins, and 
dates, -I swallowed two or three mout^fuls 

of 



Digitized by 



Google 



201 

of water. When Captain S/s dinner was 
placed on the table he sent for me and 
said : " The dinner you see before you 
^* consists of fowl and mutton, with 
" wheaten bread, which food both your 
'^ and our castes eat, and there is none of 
" that flesh here (jjwine's) which is for- 
" bidden to your people. There is very 
" little difference between cutting the 
^* throat of a fowl and strangling it. 
^ Besides, in slaughtering a sheep you cut 
" through the skin and divide half the 
** neck of the animal; now we do ex- 
" actly the same; we never think of 
^ eating an animal which has died a 
'^ natural death, therefore then, why do 
*^ you consider it disgraceful to partake 
** of our food ? You are purposely like 
^ the fools of Calcutta, and make a block- 
** head of yourself, and with your trifling 
** behaviour you subject yourself to great 
" trouble and inconvenience." I replied : 
2d " your 



Digitized by 



Google 



202 

" your caste are certainly possessors of a 
" book of revelation, therefore are better 
" than other nations who have not got ^ 
" sacred volume. Howeveryouarealjow- 
" ed to eat the food prepared by the hands 
" of these people, provided they are 
" cleanly and do not make use of impure 
" vessels ;* but (for a Mussulman) it is 
" not lawful to eat meat that has not 
" been sacrificed by the hands of a Mus- 
" sulman. In sacrificing, it is not merely 
" the cutting the throat of the animal, 
" but the prayer must be offered up like- 
" wise, and ablution must follow, all which 
" cannot be done by any other than a 
" Musselman. Besides this, you are in 
" the habit of eating your food without 
*' the accompaniments of spices, ghee,-f- 
" and salt, in consequence of which an 
" oflfensive odour arises from your meat, 

" which 

* An allusion is here made to the Pariah cooks employed 

by Europeans in India, 
t Clarified butter. 



Digitized by 



Google 



203 

'" which is very disagreeable to our olfac- 
" tory organs, therefore then how can we 
" swallow such food ?'* 

Whilst I was making this speech the 
Captain knitted his brows and said : " You 
^^ Musselmans are possessed with an idea 
" that we are gross feeders/' To this I 
replied : " By what I just said, I had no 
" intention of making out that you were 
** gross feeders; neither was any insult 
" intended. I simply stated, that every 
" country has its own peculiar customs 
" and usages ; therefore the food of every 
" nation is pleasant to the taste of the 
" people of that nation, though to a per- 
** son of a different country it may be un- 
" palatable. Between your manners and 
" customs and ours there is the distance 
" of the west and east/' 

In fine, the oven of my stomach from 

the fire of hunger became immoderately 

heated, and the kettle of my belly, from 

2 D 2 increase 



Digitized by 



Google 



204 

increase of appetite, began fiercely to boiW 
From the food which I had eaten, con- 
sisting of a small quantity of almonds^ &c, 
atid the sherbet which I had drank when 
J first arrived at the inn^ my appetite was 
rendered more keen. 

When we arrived in London I was near- 
ly fainting, and until the second watch of 
the day I remained without sense. I was 
like a corpse, being deprived of all mo- 
tion. In this condition I was discovered 
by Captain S.'s servant, who thought I 
had actually expired. He went and told 
the Captain, who ca^me to me in a great 
fright, and awaking me from sleep asked 
me how I felt myself. I replied : " I am 
" well enough, I only feel very weak/' 
Then Captain S. ordered his servant to 
bring rice, a fowl, spices, &c. and weak as 
I was, I killed the fowl and roasted it. 
I also cooked a small quantity of rice and 
ate it along with the toast. I then lay 

down 



Digitized by 



Google 



305 

itowD and slept till six in the evening, and 
next morning arose perfectly recovered. 
I remained a week in London^ dmring 
which time I dressed my victuals with my 
own hand. Four of us then got into a 
coach and we arrived in Edinburgh. 

A second time Captain S.. took me along 
with him alone (nolens vokm) to a town 
in the Highlands, the chief Magistrate of 
which was Captain S.*s elder brotiier. 
This town was at some distance from 
Edinburgh. We remained there three days 
and nights, during which time my con- 
dition was similar to what has been already 
described. 

One day Captain S* said to me : ** I 
*' was twenty years in Bengal, during 
" which time I became well acquainted 
'' with the manners of Mussulmans. I 
** have lived with Nouabs and the sons of 
^^ noblemen, and was constantly in the 
" habit of drinking and eating with them. 

" (Now 



Digitized by 



Google 



206 

" (Now I observed) that the superior 
" order of Musselmans, though they were 
" ashamed to drink wine before people, 
*^ saying * we never think of drinking 
** wine/ yet immediately strangers had 
•* retired they snatched the goblet from 
^' the hands of the cup-bearer and quaffed 
" off the liquor, and said, ' wine is an 
^^ excellent thing; in the universe there 
^^ is no other delight to equal it : Mus- 
^^ sulmans are forbidden by their religion 
** to indulge in drinking before people, 
" for if we drink before strangers assuredly 
" it is a disgraceful thing ; however, to 
" drink in secret is of no consequence 
" whatever/ Now you (Itesa Moodeen) 
" are not a man of rank, neither are you 
" descended from Nouabs or from Princes, 
" besides you are alone in this country, 
" and there is no man of your caste to 
^* note your good and evil actions, there- 
" fore then what is the reason that you 

" abstain 



Digitized by 



Google 



207 

'^ abstain from eating our meat and drink- 
" ing our wine. The only reason that I 
** can discover is this : you are a Bengallee, 
^^ and the Bengallees of Hindoostan are 
" notorious for their folly and stupidity/' 
To this I replied : " a man is not rendered 
" either noble or illustrious merely on ac- 
^* count of possessing worldly wealth. 
*' True nobility consists in acquiring 
" knowledge, in leading an upright life, 
" in obeying the laws, and in striving to 
" please God and the prophet. If men 
" of rank, from pride of wealth, or from 
" being tempted by the devil, act con- 
*« trary to the precepts of religion, they 
" are assuredly highly culpable ; and it isi 
" not necessary that a poor Musselman 
" obey or be subservient to a man of 
" opulence, when he wishes him to dis- 
*' believe in the injunctions of God and 
" the prophet. What are, in fact, worldly 
" riches ? If the son of an angel or of a 

" prophet 



Digitized by 



Google 



208 

" prophet be irreligious or wicked, and 
'^ iff on the other hand, a poor canyas- 
" dres$« or a beggar act uprightly and 
^^ continue £iithfa], then in the ejes of 
" the doctors of our religion the son of 
** the angel or prophet will appear worth- 
" less and vile, whilst the poor but 
" faithful man s conduct will be reckoned 
" very honourable and good. As Pharoah 
" wished to be considered a God, and did 
'^ not regard the injunctions of Hussurut 
" Moosa (with whom be peace), even 
** although he was wealthy and a king, yet 
" the people (to this day) curse him, and 
** consider his followers unbelievCTs. This 
^^ being the case then^ the common peo- 
*' pie act wickedly^ when they obey the 
*^ orders of the irreligious from a hanker- 
" ing after worldly wealth, and whea they 
* grow careless about religion in order to 
^* please great people, who do not keep 
" the fear of God be£>re their eyes* Now 

*'all 



Digitized by 



Google 



209 

^^ all Mussulmans are noble and of illus- 
" trious origin, for they are sprung from 
" the prophet, his companions^ arid the 
" caliphs. It is not necessary for me 
" to describe their illustrious birth or 
" exalted rank, which are so well known. 
" Yet, amongst us, poverty and indigence 
" are not accounted disgraceful. Poverty 
" is even reckoned honourable, because 
" our prophet (with whom be the blessing 
** and peace of God) and all his com- 
*• panions esteemed the slipper of the 
" beggar and his wooden shoe, as equal 
" in value to a royal crown or a cap of 
*' <;ommand. They kicked aside worldly 
" property and wealth: therefore their 
" descendants, being of the same way 
" of thinking as their ancestors were, are 
" not ashamed of poverty, and they con- 
" sider religion to be far better than sub- 
" lunary matters. Although (the religious 
**^oor) may seem in the eyes of the 

2 E ** wealthy 



Digitized by 



Google 



210 



14 



trealthy and peo[^ of a strange caste 
to be miserable and coatemptible^ yet 
they are always accounted respectable 
by Mttsselmanee kings and nobleSf by 
^' whom tbey ar6 exalte add honoured. 
^^ All thftt I have said can be proved to 
" be true, by referring to chronicles and 
" books of history.** 

^^ After the demise of Hussurut the 
/^ prophet (with whom be the blessing 
^ and ptode of God)) Aboo Bukr Sudeek, 
^^ Oomr Farook, Oosman Been Ufan^ and 
'^ Hussurut Eben Alee Talib (on all of 
'^ whom be peace), occupied in succes*- 
^^ aion the throne of the caliphat. After 
^' Hussurut Alee, Hussurut Imaum Hus- 
*^ sun (with whom be peace) ; after whom 
^v Mavia ornamented the throne of the 
^^ caliphs, when the dignity of Caliph 
^^ descebded to Eseed^ Mavia's son. He 
^^ knowiii^ that thSQ caliphat was the right 
^< of Hussurut Imam Zeenpol Abudeen 

« (with 



Digitized by 



Google 



m 

•* (with whom be peace), the son of Hjus- 
♦* surut Imam Hoosen (with whom be 
^ peace), in order therefore to make him 
'* assume the title he gave him great 
*^ annoyance; but the Hussurat (Zeenoo- 
" labudeen) would not agree to it, but 
^ said, f that poverty and indigence are 
*' the inheritance we derive from our an- 
•^ cestors, we must also pray to and serve 
** God : riches and the dignity of Caliph 
^^ are mere secondary considerations/ 
*' After this the office of Caliph cam^ to 
^* the son of Oomeia : then Alice Abaas 
*' held it; afterwards HuUakoo Khan, 
"descended from Chungez Khan, who 
•* subdued many countries. To him suc- 
" ceeded Shah Ismael, who was sprung 
** from the kings Suffavea, who again are 
*^ descended from Hussurat Moosa Cazim* 
^^ (with whom be peace), therefore of 
" illustrious family and descended from 
2 E 2 " prophets, 

* His Highness Moses, the restrainer of anger. 



Digitized by 



Google 



212 

^^ prophets, he (Shah Ism'ael) became 
*• king of Persia. The Sultanut of Room 
" was then held by Alee Oosman. After 
'^ this, in the time of Sultaun Mabmood 
" Yuznavee, Hindoostan was subjected to 
" Musselmanee rule. Then the govern- 
^' ment of India came to the hands of 
^* Alee Shah Boodeen : to him succeeded 
" king Umeer Timoor, who was of Mogul 
** descent ; after him followed his sons and 
" those of Shah Abaas. The kings of 
'^ Persia are descended from the prophet ; 
" so likewise the Sultaun of Room, who is 
" sprung from Hussurut Oosman (may 
" God be pleased with him), rules over 
" the countries of Room, Syria, and 
" Arabia, until this day. 

" To be brief, our ancestors were Sieds 
" and descendants of the prophet, ahd some 
*' of them were of the families of the com- 
" panions of the prophet and of the Caliph 
*^ Asim. Assuredly, then, these people 

" were 



Digitized by 



Google 



. 213 

^' were heirs to the caliphat, . and had a 
" claim to the crown and throne ; but they 
** gave up worldly honours from a love of 
" prayer, and a desire of . acquiring. know- 
" ledge, and contented themselves in retire- 
" ment with the food which was prepared 
" for them : therefore the Sultauns of Hin- 
" doostan and the Caliphs of Room gave 
" these people jaghires,* and allotted 
" them pensions in every district and 
" country. When the children of the 
", Sieds began to increase, and had sepa- 
" rated themselves in the countries of 
" Persia, Hindoostan, &c., then the kings 
" and rajahs of these countries shewed 
" them favour and honoured them greatly, 
" but said : * These people know they have 
" a right to the caliphat and to kingly 
" power, therefore will perhaps wish to 
" commence war or cause strife :' and, in 
^* order to prevent their rising (with the 

" exception 

♦ Land given by government in reward for services. 



Digitized by 



Google 



214 

" exception of Ae Moguls), other nations 
'' lessened the dignity and lowered the 
^< Sieds and Shaikhs in rank, so diat 
^ many days after, when their descendants 
** had become very numerous and had 
<^ little to subsist on, they then began to 
*' desire service; and the poor people 
** among them, in order to find employ- 
*• ment, travelled about to every country 
*' and city, soliciting the favour of the 
** opulent. Thanks and praise be unto 
^* God, that these people (generally speak- 
*• ing) unto this day are firmly attached to 
•' the religion of their ancestors. I am a 
** poor man of the above caste, who have 
** come to this country as a traveller 
** (through your means), being allured by 
^^ aliment. I am forlorn and friendless, 
" and have been subjected continually to 
^^ hardships and the labour of travelling; 
** being therefore unable to help mysdf, I 
*• must await the issue patiently. 

« Though 



Digitized by 



Google 



215 

** Though the head of Zekeriah was sawn asunder, yet he 

uttered no complaint. 
<< Though misfortunes happen to th$ sons of Adam, they 

will in time get oTer them.** 

Captain S.> having heard what I had 
said, was convinced (that I was right). 
StilU as is always the case amongst his 
countrymen, who contemn the poor and 
account the rich illustrious, he did not 
believe in all I had advanced, although 
I had given him suitable answers ; he there- 
fore still continued to dispute with me, 
as he had done from the beginning. 
However, in my absence, he told my his- 
tory to different people of rank, and 
praised me exceedingly, saying, ^^ During 
^^ the whole time that I remained in £en- 
^^ gal, I never saw such a strict Mussel- 
^ man as this man is. On the voyage he 
^' had a severe attack of flux, so that he 
^^ was nearly dying. I was very anxious 
** to administer a small quantity of wine, 
^ by way of medicine, bnt he would not 

** taste 



Digitized by 



Google 



216 

" taste a drop, and He recovered (without 
'' it)/' 

One day Captain S. asked me, " bow 
" is it that you contrive to keep your 
" health so well ? you have not been sick 
" fOT many days/' I answered, " the 
" grand secret is abstinence. True' it is, 
*^ that. when I set out for England I was 
^* in considerable perplexity (on account 
*^ of the: temptations that would assail 
" me): I therefore prayed to God, saying, 
" * Oh Lord ! preserve me from drinking 
" * wine/ After that 1 led a very tempe- 
" rate life, for I knew that if I fell sick 
" the English doctors would prescribe wine 
" for .me to. invigorate: me, for they con- 
" sider it salutary. But the Almighty 
*^ had compassion on me,- and heard my 
" prayer, so that I preserved my health, 
*^ and have had no occasion for any medi- 
*• cine whatever.;* 

I remained in England for the space of 

one 



Digitized by 



Google 



217 

one year and six months, expecting always 
the arrival of the Great Mogul's letter. 

When Lord Clive came to England, 
in order to shew his esteem for his Majes- 
ty he presented the gifts (with which be 
had been entrusted by Shah Alum) to 
the Queen, in his own name,* he there- 
fore obtained an abundant share of the 
xoyal favour. He made no mention what- 
ever either of Shah Alum's letter or mes^ 
sage, neither did Captain S. make any 
disclosure regarding the above, for he 
placed great reliance on what his Lord- 
ship had promised to do for him. When, 
however, he saw the deep game his Lord- 
ship was playing, he said to me, ** Lord 
Clive has completely deceived me/' 

Captain S., from not being acquainted 

with any of his Majesty's Ministers, and 

being afraid of falling under the dis- 

£ F pleasure 

* Itesa Modeen must have been miBinformed as to this : 
Lord Clive was of top noble a nature to have acted as above 
stated. 



Digitized by 



Google 



218 

pleasure of Lord Clive and the DirectorSi^ 
was unable to forward the business ill 
any way. 

Some time after I discovered the reason 
why Shah Alum's letter had been con- 
cealed : It was as follows. At the time I 
am treating of, there was a dispute between 
the Ministers and the Company regarding 
the possession of Bengal and other coun- 
tries. The Ministers said, ** The Com- 
" pany are only agents and merchants, 
** what right have they to possess a cbun- 
** try ? The government and revenues 
" should be placed in the hands of the 
'* King, and let the Company employ 
" themselves in trading and trafficking." 
To this the Company replied : " During 
'* the wars of Nouab Soorajah Dowlah 
" and Cassim Alee Khan, the factories 
" we had in Bengal were all plundered, 
" by which we sustained a loss of pro- 

" perty 

*~0f the East-India Company. 



Digitized by 



Google 



219 

" petty to the amount of crores of 
" rupees j besides we expended large sums 
" in paying the troops, and it was solely 
" owing to the Company's officers, who 
" laboured hard and exerted themselves 
** greatly i that the country of Bengal was 
" conquerqd.^ Therefore, then, accord- 
** ing to the agreement which was formerly 
^^ made between us and the Ministers, 
" we are now ready to give whatever 
" sums of money, and to pay whatever 
^ taxes you demand (according to the 
*^ compact agreed to)/' Thus the dis- 
pute continued between the parties ; but 
the Ministers could not substantiate their 
claim, and their arguments would not 
hold good. In this state of things, Lord 
Clive being a welJ-wisher of the Com- 
pany, after having consulted with the 
Directors, it was thought expedient to 
keep from the knowledge of his Britannic 
Majesty the letter of Shah Alum ; because 
2 F 2 if 



Digitized by 



Google 



220 

if it were to appear at this juncture, it 
would greatly assist the Ministers in 
establishing their pretensions. 

Captain S. used everj endeavour to get 
me to stay three or four years in England. 
I however declined doing so, for I was so 
depressed in spirits at being separated 
irom my native country and friends, that 
I cared little about acquiring riches or 
temporal advantages. At last Captain S. 
gave me in charge of Mr. M., who was 
formerly chief secretary in Calcutta, and 
permitted me to depart. I returned to 
Bengal in the year of the Hejira 11S3, 
and in the month of Katuk, having been 
absent on my travels to Europe two 
years and nine months 



Digitized by 



The 



Google 



221 



THE CONCLUSION OF THE WORK. 

By the mercy of God, the preserver of 
the world 9 I (a sinner) travelled to Eng« 
land, and from my journey great advan- 
tages accrued to me, and I returned to 
my native country without loss or detri- 
ment; and from being permitted to re- 
visit (my country) I gave praise and thanks 
to the Almighty. 



FINIS. 



Digitized by 



Google 



Digitized by 



Google 



ERRATA 



[It IB requested that the Student will make the corrections before commendng 
the Hindoostanee Translation.] 



Page. line. 






Ffege-Liae. 






1 1 Read fJiic >br |»l!ae 


r* ! Read tejyU. Jbrjjy/U 


- ^ - 


^>/T. 


jyf'T 


r* \r - 


^^, 


"^-^l 


r r - 


^v- 


^u 


n r - 






- V - 




9 


rr \ . 


- A n 


A^- 


^ 


e* 11 - 


h^- 


!/ 


r - - 


<af^' " 


«Al 


fiT 1 - 


^-1^ - 


«j<^ 


r r - 


^ - 


WDe^ 


16 ^e - 


jof - 


Aj 


- II - 

b P - 


'^ - 


*4fi 


vr u« - 

VI r - 


i-u - 




t*?- - 


t*^ 


- f - 






1 1 - 


^^. 


>js^ 


^J!/ - 


jy> 


V ir - 


yi»iji - 


cr*b^ 


Af r - 


iZ9ja». " 




1 k 




^^^ ^ ' 


AV 'a - 


Ojtt - 


•Jjl? 


A \r - 




i2/l 


U 1 - 

<|A - - 

!♦♦ ir - 


<i/- 


JiJ 


1 \f - 




^'e 


•^^- 


j4- 


- u - 

- n - 






!•«« r - 
|M r - 


• • 




11 r - 

lA - - 






iiA r - 
in r - 




•• 


f ir - 


*?Hi - 


*9H 


ipr n - 


^1^- 


'^]i 


rr n - 


u^^^U;. . 


di^y^U. 


ler V - 


jii^ ' 


Jty^ 


rp - - 


*?^«^ - 


^V 


lev 1 - 


ur - 


Iav 


re 1 - 


^- 


y 


nr It* - 


«iW - 


e^Vi 


rv p . 


•*?«{ - 


s&*»i 









Digitized by 



Google 



< nv ) 

U-V J /^ &!^ y^ j^J^ ^ rf^ y» ttll'i ^j' 



« c 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



( m ) 

9 

^-^^^ '^ c;:r« jy^ ^ ^^V f>^^ ^^ ^ «r« 
e-i^ j>l ias^ ifj Sj^ UW ^^ L^-^U^ IjJ ^ 

» 
6y^ lO^ J4 ^ cAV ^-^^-^ ^!^ ^ 6^^-; 

y\).> «-r- j^ 'd''^. f ^^. 4 C^^ err* ^i-f 



Digitized by VaOOQlC 



( 1^0 ) 

'4'^ j3^ ^^^^^ '^ iJ^ (^^ ^ ^^ i/;^^ ^2^ 

J^oJl <^!^ C->|y ^j^ 4«^ S ^J C->|^ ^_ji-^ 
j\^4>\ jjl IT ^ ifU-. ^^ ^/. Uj l::^ <sk-1j ^ 



Digitized by V3OOQIC 



( ni* ) 

^yb ^fl^ ^ Jlf if\A ^Lrflj J^^ (*J^ J^ 

V^ ^ uV*;*^ j/*^ ^ (♦^ 3 ••li ^ Jit *l& 
.^^^ ^ cr^«^ y^^ / ^<^ L/-^ L5« cr- er?^ jj^ 

9 

I 

ftJ il^ *;-c, Jl^ ,j^ ^ 4^ ^^^:-^ j^L>-U 



Digitized by VaOOQlC 



( ir ) 

S-^ !;* ^ c)#* *y» ttT^ w*^ f* ttJ** wy^? 

^r* gy** cyUL. V JUli j> Jh ^jt* ^^ 
i^ cry* ^>* ^y 'j* ttPff J^ ^ -^ *,?f*<i / 

^^ j\la:ij d^ <sXjf« ^yd- jjl j^^ iijlrl .^t 

wHiS^ ifb^b ^\^ ^ ^j jji i*iee / ^-j 



Digitized by 



Google i 



I 



C nr ) 

jji^ A»T ^ ^ fS\ aj J- y 
y^ \^ Jjls ut^ ^ bUH ^ ^ y^ c.-J' 

U; ,^ «:^ ^ <j\^ err- w:? *^J -^ '"^y ^y 

If <_>]^ ^ UU ut-(; ^^ V >rtj* «^ «ir 



' Digitized by 



Google 



(Ill ) 

f jU ^ ^^ ^jL J jLi ^ 4£A^ }^j 

^ ^j ^ Wj c->b ^< cl6 ^^tji^l ^ *j i 
C^l e- |»y u-y v^ u-* J^ a>^ fj^ VJ ui^ 

<;W^ .<^ L'-T^ l/ si'i ^'*^ -^ u-^ s^>^ 



Digitized by 



Google 



( IV ) 

ttTf* usr* {Jjd '^'JV >^ ^y i/^ »^V u-V* 

<-. jJiy K pj JieL, ^U- jj^ ^^ 0)1,1 J- 
e;s* (^ "i^j^ J5^ (•>• ^ •*-«» ^<i^»* V^ tlj^ 



Digitized by VaOOQlC 



( |A1 ) 
^^. i/ ^J-S- JJ^ i^-iW i (/^^ J Hg;s« -^ 

i/ '?'«> ^j< i/ «^W* «^ '•*^'* vV Ajs- ^ 

j^Aff* JkL^ evfii u-1 ^^ J/^ A ^'^^ J^ \J 
JT i^jUj-» J Ja^^^yi^ ^ ^ \^ d^\^ ^^ 

9 B 

Digitized by VaOOQlC 



( \^ ) 

<^J (^ •^s^ J \a\j3^ *f *?A* }}¥ A ^y^ 3 
J^^ ^j^ Mj ^h- f "''^ i/ ^'** V^e 

|JL1 ,^^f jijj jj,U\A^U ^ ^j^ JJi J j^ji 

«^ ^Jy J ys- ^ «Jb* tr' jj^ US* «?<^ *'>'iJ 

« 

^\ fU, ^ tJ\l» yj^ J^ ^ ^j^ y 
^^ 4^ fcS-*^ Crtj/rUfcjlLt UUS^T jjW« J^ 



Digitized by VaOOQlC 



( I'^v ) 
f,\i>.\ jj\ U lj**> 1^ ^\Ai^ ^^f}^ ^U^ ^ 

1* 

Ja-!^ ^ ^U. j_^U 4^ yyS^. *A«* j_^U lAi- ^y 

vW«< _, ^ jj^ J4< i ^ ui»^ J c-^ 



Digitized by 



Google 



( "^1 ) 

1>X>. jjl ^U J[»> l^ ftJk jjl ^j^ J.4>e c^m} 

i*-?**^ *^,>e- ^ ^ <^ dyj jj^ ''^ jj^ «i> 

<^ y^^ J*1 y «»; >tt;iJ J J*e tlAji v9*» J 



Digitized by 



Google 



v^ si>* ^^^^ #* w^ /-« t4«* ^ s^ tt>s* 

sA^ ^< i\^ J-a- <_>ji <-J<;A S ^ jj< tfi 

^ ytiUL»« ^^ ^^ ^^ \J*> u..«««} sO^ 

<f- «i <T^ j^ «*¥ «eV *^ t/i i/* ^; ttjs«» 
« «^V u-i J^ ^ ^ v,-*- ^> >»^ 



Digitized by VaOOQlC 

i 



( ^^^ ) 

9 

t/* i/« ttie^ *^-^ crj^ «;t-' / >^ vV-^ 
«15 j^, J>V *4^y A^:^. ^ vC;^ 6"*' / 

9 

\a^ r^ S \c>^ CSi tfito C^t j^l \^l e* 

^ i£-^ jfl^ 4/ai^ jV J«- /^ jl^ ^^ 

^ j^ V LiJ ^'U ^\ tS\'/^ >\y^ »\^ 
V>J- <}l}> '^e^UL-^^jl Uj ,^ y-rf ,^ «1^ 



Digitized by 



Google 



( i^f- ) 

<-j^\:;if^ ^*>^ 3 fry *^>^V^ J->^ dj^ Lfiy^ 
Ir'wljj'^ u*^ <^ !>?• v^ <if^ {J'y^ .xis-jj *-• 

b W-fyA jjl l>¥ !!;s4> (»^'*V >• l>;<^ c>** 

tsJU ^^ j^ l^ jj^ ^ <^ jj^ S V_,o. 

Jty>.^ -€ 1;-* j^iUii. 1^ ^ jj^ y;-^ tiS-S, ^1 
^ J^ J3^ Ui^ ^j^ i^fir* ■'^ V J^ J-^ji 



Digitized by VaOOQlC 



( «Ar ) 

erf ^jl JU. ft» JL \i\4 aily- <^ (^] jj\ ^^ 
^ 4^ jU Ul^ U, j^ \a|P. ^ ^U> j;U 

j^ ijtff Js^*^ vi *^^^| j^ 4^jb^ ^ ^V^ 



Digitized by 



Google 



( i'^t ) 

jsr b J tt)9* <^ «^!* (*y dj^ j^ <oW ^ 

''>Vj MT* ^Jij* U^J J^ <^} ^.'i / t/* J'j' 

jj' urH* <0^ i/Wj ^- (^ J ^ ^ ^^ 

*^r» trj, «rf* i'^ c;*** J^ *^ V^ 6- V' 

V/ <--«« (i>js^ iit:^) J a»V ^'^ I;''** *J ,^ 

;,U UV \^ ^, *- ^l» <;f wj^J J l^V e^ 

J yU-« \ij ^.o /• ^j uju j d/b ^5<f 

2 A 



Digitized by 



Google 



( 1^* ) 

1>* •''jy j^4Srf ttT* "/J^ *^^ -e^ ^ ij^ ^ 

4\^^3^ ^ y ^ Aili ly. jjS tA*£i J j»« 
^ Li l^ 4::^Uii .^ Ut^ j»: Ky ^jl \j]b (^ .^ 



Digitized by VaOOQlC 



( Ivl ) 

jj^ j\^ ^ >.bV ; «A^ jili^ My 4*^ 

M ^ i*^' ,^ ^^*^ *«H -i^lj *>" ^ ^^ 
y^ h t^ ^A i^J^ fi- uh ^jt* ^^ J 
^iji #W <i^ u«- 1>V» *^ «^ ^> -^/ ^ 
>.xiU ^ > !;«- ^>< ^ > H V* >V. -jr 



Digitized by 



Google 



( 1VA ) 

^^.> ji: ij,U i jjjs* 4J3J ^J Jtol y, y-^ j(^ tt^ 

-vr ^ Jh- «-i' ttT* *^ t^ -^i -^ V 

JU Ci3l tfi» J.) «;r* -r/^ V;' er- O^ 



Digitized by 



Google 



( ivv ) 

J^ ^yU ^\j ^ 4^1^ 4^1^ ^JT Ifi^ ^J4 

9 

y <^/ 4i>b^ v/ t>--r ^ ^4/^ s-^ 

9 

*->*<{ U?* -V S?/ J^' t!*' b tj** ij ^J3j^ i 



Digitized by VaOOQlC 



( tvi ) 
err \^ rH <^ sjix) t^j> J aJi61 J ^tuyki* 

^ A «;-• 6i» t^ ^ i V wUi* A^ cub 

• * 

Mj *^. u-!. «- v)^ ^ ^JL tl^ C<1^ / 



Digitized by VaOOQlC 



M ^ w3^ ^iif ^J^ «^^ **** -*^ 
ss^ ^ Miii\ (^\y» i3ij» <s ^<4 r *^^ 

^ ^J&* f f^ ^ j^ vi ••**«* t^ ttJS* 
'^ «d J3' 'i* *^J *- '^ ^^ '^' ^ «:>^ "^^ 



Digitized by 



Google 



( Wi* ) 



n 

-»J^ — ef v^' j«{ j^ •"» 

^j< *^ j9 v/ uui* u4 ta^ **4P i!>94> Js^^ 



Digitized by 



Google 



( tvl ) 

/ J'fr y^j^) ^ */ (f w^ ^ < W* . - 
*^j^.J ^r«>T ^ S ^ ^ ^ t^yj^^ 

yl« ^f*>T ^^^|; It J-* *^' tt>!^*• '<^J 4?^ r* *^ 

^ ^J^^ji^ / WJ=^' jj< ss* '^ c;** -«^^ *"> 

9 9. 99 

^ \siij^ ^J} ^Ji^ *^r^ 6?Vj* ^'*^ V 

^ ftJOJysJ j\C& (}i\y< t:ij^\ J-^^ Jii J^ ^ 



Digitized by V3OOQ IC 



( tv ) 

Ji, W, crtf }^ MA ^jyi ^ »A^y^ ^^ 

V 

b^ J5^ «— «»-Vtf ^^L ut-5j ^jt «5,\ Uj-* 

V* err* fiJ^ 6jt* j^ *> *--^ V<> / '^v^ jyV 



Digitized by V3OOQIC 



( Hi ) 

u^ U-' -^ ^^ err* ^^^ ^r^ <^^ ^"^ 
Af <fei;f- e^ 4|F>- J ch'/ /u? bV sj^ ^^ 

Iftf^O .^ 1^ ^..^>.U ^t ,«|^ jj^ ^ 1;^ 6*^ 

S\ jy> *^ji^ jH ^ Ji^ ^ -^ A f^ K^' •^'^ 



Digitized by 



Google 



( flA ) 

J^ ^^ ^ Ji3^ j^-^ Pj^ ttT* <iil?> ^ 
^^ \^ 4J/ Iaj ft--j jjt j^ ^ \j^ ^j I&Uj 

Ji^ <^ tiji «5>t*- ttjs- '^^ «?Vr*^ cr!«^ ^ 
y1 it>J* 'f^'* <-:^ ttjt* t!^ j^3i JJ^ M^^ 

%^ ^} j^ d^ «' V ^!> ^ j^ ^ Jr*^ 

^ Jij ^ }^ -4^ ^^ j)\ V' <aV y J 



Digitized by VaOOQlC 



( nv ) 

yi \ij ^M^ C£>U j^ i i.^ ^ ^j ^ 

t^* v/ ii,^^ ^j' ^ j^ <5y> t^ «A^ Jj\ 

^Jj 1^^ t^j.* fcl^t if^ A(^«) ^ ^ )^ ji,^ 

jj\ i^lad ft«, d^ t^j^ ««^ / wl>y V- «it ttJSl' 
- •--oW' ^;-a^ ujy'js*- - «|^ (»-*» t/.\ iSfj^ J, 



Digitized by VaOOQlC 



( ni ) 

b/^ t,-** t^jji ^ / f "^j ^j ^ J^ 
J»-1j <$ ei/i j^ e>^ •**** s^^jJ *^' V 

K y,Uj^ vlflU / ^\j CJJ\ S CJ3 J^ ^^• 

l/jf; V ^r* o^^ (^ ![>V>^ ^j^ ^ V ^ 
^ y^ t^ ii/i j^ v^ j^ J?^ j^ •'^jy 

V'^ ejif ttrr* ft"- «^ ;!/ ^ C^ -^ v/{ 



Digitized by 



Google 



( ^'yr ) 

«!-* i^ *> tt>e* ^y J/f> tt>l>«>i* / trf -^ ^r* 
^r*; -J^ tf- crf^j *^ <««* ^V c>** c^y*^ ^ 

<s!^ 'js^j r- (^ j^^ d^ j/^ ts-» /^ <^ ^J3e 

j\j UU^ ^\^ J <A-f4» ^b jU ^^ ^5^ 

err* '^h J3^ L5^ ^V ^J*^ ^W j^ ^ tf^ 
^^ji cr?t^ lr»^ rf V ^ c>^ <^' ur?^ uyi /" 

J-«* ^♦^ u;:?* ,^ y J^ /^ ^ S (Jfs^yi^ 

^ ^ uij^ J^ 5^J j-fjj 



Digitized by 



Google 



( iir ) 

bo ^,1/ K c:^- ^s ^ u^. ^ j^ / t;- 

v/ v?V ij;**^ J>* "A**^ *> u9* «^ it/ ju 

v/ •rf)* s^ /« ^y '^l;^ cr!-J ^!^ -^^ J*^ 

# # • t 

^i^ y/ J'***^ i^ u*^ v)^ <^J «-»^ / u>**J 

• / » 

«^:-*^ <^=-^ jV ajJ^** a iji^j Ih ^ai^ <^J. ^ 

C^) V* J3^ ttje* cH^J Ji^ <^ «^l>j / bT'J <r- 
tt«* *?/ '"^si eT* ttJS^J tr' ^^^ly v/ rt 



Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



( nv ) 

"jiP^ f Jiff ^f <^V ^ *^f^ J W^ -^ i/ 

y uT jw v:^u ^ i u-^ ^ aj ^ 

C^ v^^ s^j* ^^ ^^-^ i*^** V ^''' jS** vi^^ 
' c-^W^ ^ U^>?^ <^ j*-*^ cr^^ ^) 4 



Digitized by VaOOQlC 



( ni ) 

eyiK' ^ ^^ s^/ ■ -^ t/ jrr^ *- s^i- 

b/^ b?-i- *J)J^ ^ j^^Mf /^j ^ J^ 
M 4^ «i/i j^ w^iJ** 4^r*fc s^yi^ ui^l V 

K 4j,Ujj tlflU / cyj^ cl^J ^ ^ J^ ^^ 

J fe«; j^ v^ urff -^^ *jb>> v-- «^ is-i*^ 

•»V V^ «- <OV ^^^ ^^^ j»\3/io> *bjy 

V^ c>s«* ens* 6«- «^ ^b'f ^ C^ -^ v/i 



Digitized by 



Google 



( ^'^r ) 

«-«? i^ b vft^ ^i^^ JJi^ Jy^ / trf -^ i/* 
v/*^ -^ tf- (t»**j *^ <«f« jV tt>** cJ^-^ «^ 

j^^ iiS^ a^. j^ tiji4 ^ / ttjs^ «H> u-' 
e^ »j!f-3 f^ ^ J^ v^ *?/^ tsr- /^ ^ 4;^ 

^V ic^ ^^J*J «^ *»-f* tt^ jV urf* t'^ 
err* <^.3f> J^< v/ ^V -J*^ ?rW ^^ ^5» V 

*-J*^ cr* li-l^ *iV <^ «J^ ^^ i:fi^Wji j*> 
^^ l^ i-iiy. J-ai \^0 j-jjj 



Digitized by 



Google 



( nr ) 

bo 4\J^^ c^ ^\»^ ^ \u^^ j^ f^ ^ \^ 

^ jV ttTJ*-*^ -^ I/* s^j^ s/y '^^ ^A^ 
v/ s»V ij;**^ J>* •A>'^ 4 ttjj^ <^ it/ ij 

P P m . 

f^ *iP ^ fiH «^ CJ9-J M (^ "^^ Cr*J J^ 

j^ /.^ ')^' ^ \^^ %a^ if} *-^^ } xa»V 

. / - 

«i->*^ «-^ ^y ApJ^ j< u;?^ j^ eK* Jji -^ 

*t^' J* ^y uje* aJV* cfe'' <^ ^s^)jj } e<«j «- 
cB* *?/ W cT* ttJ?*J tr' ^^^^ly v/ H 



Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



( t*^ ) 



u 
— ^uM — J^^^ 

4i>A^ c^W J^ {J^^ i:fi^ 4=4^ c;!?^ *^' ^ 
^ i:^ i^ <^2-« J^, ^f-J'* 4:5^ -§-/! 



Digitized by 



Google 



( «e^ ) 

^^ aJ vLmI C^ ^-^ fclii^ *^ «^ ,j^ 



Digitized by 



Google 



( l^v ) 

L,*. ^ j!iS IC^ JaJj «J y-i». fj^ <^J 

^ ^ *j<^i wjs*' Jj' !/ sy*^^ ->^^ r^ 

«iJj r* tf\ j^ y^ ^^ ^ ^^ji V mV-' 

L^ j^j J^ >j:,>.5j3fw ^t _^ J^ J^ W^ ^is^ ^ 
i^\^\ c»'«*» ^fM* Cy v^ ^t ^^^ cil;\^ ^ Jl^nOff^ 



X 



Digitized by VaOOQlC 



( »er ) 

«^ i/?^ ^ ^^'^[ «— i J^ v^ <«'> ^IC J^ 
j^<>*» «^ c^ ens' V y u««^ trirfj?" -^ A 



Digitized by VaOOQlC 



( te' ) 

^^ i^ ^; c;W 4^ 4j^ ^j^ v/ ^V *i^W / 
i JU i&S^ ^^>^ ji^s^ asL^ W -^ -e Ir*-^^ 

(•'•^ err* ^i/ r'^ b jH -H'*^ ^ *^*^ -^ -e 

w'-**' v^ ^y jj} «-. ,»K ^< ^^ jji y^ ij/ 

Uij- cy;Ur ^ \ij>i :f (^ w} J^ u^ ^^'i 



Digitized by V^OOQIC 



( 'ft- ) 

J3^ clr* / UJ^J <^ (•V uj9 *^^ '-r'^ '-^ 
yLT ^W ^^^ ^ y^ wJU ^^ e<» jy' ij\} 

tt>9«^ -;i wVj / ^ cr} US- j^ f^ i^} y^ 
4^ !a». i ^ «?)y 4^ l;U ^j J*l ^y ^^ 

^ ^ j;r V ^rfi- .CJ9* «-*^ "^Z /^ v/ -^ 



Digitized by 



Google 



( \n ) 

^ (^ \i^ »cLi }4 ^a^ -4^ <^^ ^ ^-^ 

f 

C>-1 "^Z /^ iO^ <^ii A v;!^ ^J 4j -^ 
^ ^b j^ y, ^j\r J yj^ u-^ «^ j\^. 

t}i./ j^ 3^^ s «^ ^J >* ry ^^^ »^ ^ 



Digitized by 



Google 



( ^^^ ) 

L^ \ij\ f^f^ J ^^j*^ ^y ^^ ^"T^ )ji if 
y^ eftj »Uj »U jb 1^ <^ U-y <^'!^ f u>^W* 

i^ ^y" ttT* w*'**' -vf: cr^* J*^' u-b Jj' 

i ^j /y j^^s^^J^ i*ii\ )aii ^^ (*f^ Jiy 
jj\ t-JL^ j»UJ ^^»^^ ^y ^^ Utoj Jjil-. y^ 

*iM •^-'^ *A>l>v "^j 4^ *^jj>y <^j cr^ i^ 

^ ^/ u-^ WT l» j»j «e^l)»lft j)\ \jj^ \^\ 



Digitized by VaOOQlC 



( f^ ) 



» ' 



*^V u^] ttT* "r-"*^ ^ e;iJ «H^ ->J^ <H^^ (^^ 
j^J^ i ^^ ^ ^ «?;V Ml/- J ^. ts-oV j$ 

t^ jtU fi- j»*^ u-J^ j^^ eJ9* *?/ '-^si t^^ 



Digitized by VaOOQlC 



( in > 

A* jV* k^ ^j vfi^ y ^ ts^ "iV jW 

i wr^ ^1' ^^ J'^ J^.A "^^ ^ jj< 
jUJj \^ ^b v^ ^L «^ cy,jc ^^; ,^^^ 

v/ ^>* ttlH' V *J^ 

f 
-^ J i/ 3 ^J^ J "V <^} J us* «J/ 

J ^ \^ IS ^^ j\»i,\ J S ^ \J cjU. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



C ii** ) 

^ i^.j>g* (15o^ ^^ 1^^ (Sjiy ^ oJij) MduUt 

t^} ttjs<* >- j«i «?y» cp^ ''^ j^/ 4^jU jIao 

U 

Digitized by VaOOQlC 



U^ 6^ 4^ 4^j J^ ^-r^ -% 'JJWV Jj' ttJ9» rf^ 

t>-J tt^ «^.^ J^ ^"^ ^^ ^^]^\ <f C-»j 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



( iir ) 

f^ c;-! u>9* *^*^ *^ /i** -^ vi tar*) ^ 1^, 

9 

j^ (..w lO/ ^Stj tf y^yi- ) cA-ft ^ Ut-lj.* 
^ (^ ^j^ir- uJy ^ Uj jj^ ^^ c^^y. 

^ 6- JSjy:> JUa Uj.**--! ^ 4^*U4:JjJ ^\jif>A ^ 



Digitized by VaOOQlC 



( tfr ) 

A ^ u!»^ *%> ^ «T^ «?*^ te-i O 

* 

_'■''■ ei9* 

^U. ^ jy\ ^^/ ts-iV tM/ J?" ^ »-*y'^ 
^ j4^< J*1 XJjs^ ^r^ ^. <^ CV* «f -^1; 



Digitized by 



Google 



( n^i ) 



Digitized by VaOOQlC 



( n«* ) 

«^ wl J**!* y4 4:^'^ ^ J^. tf* J^ ^i 4 

^Jt>> »1^' ttrr* tf** J* Jj' ^'f^ Ji^ J* cjs^jy'i- 



Digitized by VaOOQlC 



{ in ) 

atv jy^ ^ ^ji- ^ i>} »-^J \f u-\ J 



Digitized by VaOOQlC 



( trA ) 

i*fir ^^fe^ (^^, 
4) "^ ttJS*2^ «^ U-' ^3^ (S>9» *?Jy Wlj «--^/ 



Digitized by 



Google 



( irv ) 



IP 
ttjs** ;-»*** 1^ j4 f w^ -'j' la^ <^j J:^ vjir' 

j^j t^ tfjJ^j Jf-» j^rs^ jt4«j 45jL.t ^\<fl ^ 

T 



Digitized by 



Google 



( «n ) 

o««* Jirt* ) Js** sa^ Iry* *^ <^ sv^ 

joA-J / vT jj' v/ ^f > /i- ^jf- -^ 

- * * , t 

«4S*. ^ '^ (f J, y/^ W-^ ->J^ «e^ tr" 
J iA^J kJ ^J u^ -^ V V w/ *^ ^' 

y^ 'w^ urJ** ^ JJ^ *i*^ ttT* *** aH' ^ \Afijt 

y>fc b/ Jjw J JjJil \a^ ^/ JaS y-iVy^ i 



Digitized by 



Google 



( ir» ) 

^^ tj» Jm Ljtt «^ 4;-* S ^ yo^ /T -ij; 
JT jjf x» *^ "'ir^ U io^ ^ f k: S^ 

0;je ^>^U. ^^U J^- b^ ^ ^ ^j*j> U1)L( 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



( \rf ) 

J<{ c^ v/ A '^ f?--/ «r* t^ *^ *^-^J* 
J ,V^ ^ ^ *U ^-i{t i <i,V^ j5«{ w-i* 4 

tZtyd^ J^\U>. \^ ^. jAl tf^ LJS ,j.\ ^J tl^ 

jIaio U^ g?j^ «j1j- <^ *i»)y u-^ «*f*^ <^ 
j»U ^^ S ^^j{ j^j» *-jr« «-e> ^ U-* t^/^ 

,^ ^y 1/ U^V ^T d^J CSd S ^ 
»^y i ^ly js-Uj s^ ^j? tt;-f -^ ^r' v^ 



Digitized by 



Google 



( irr ) 

4j,U\6 ^ ^ j^ jjei -^ V ^5 "^'a> •€ e;9* 

**'b^ r*>^-^ (^ ^ fw c;s^ tf^ *^ "^jj^ yJ 

fS ^1^ ^^ fc^ ^ U^^ «$.id J« JiO. 1;^^ 

j^ j c^t^ J jM^ Jj' ^ '^ ^ uVv^ jW^' 



Digitized by 



Google 



( irr ) 
i vT*^, y fi}^ jyr-^ C^ -% /^ x^ ^y^ J^ 

ji^ c>s» ««•> •"*» (»^ J o«^ / V i tti) JJ^ v/ 

y;-fc «?eo Jl^ / y»t ^ ^^ ^^\ Ji t^ji 
sft^ /' i^ ^t' ttjr* ^^' 4^ Uj ^ l^a^ 

«i'' 'jsh j^ t^j -^ J^ tt-^> (>V "^r^ 
j^ irf)* «*j* ^•*r *-• «er5^ tl^ y y *» *d^V 

^^ \^ y «i> cP^ c;?* «=^''** *^ /^ t^ v<i 



Digitized by VaOOQlC 



( ir» ) 

9 f 

sJ'' Jjf JL> «^ ^J^ /J ttJ9- •>j^ j^- ^ J^"**? 
C^jfi ^^V ^^ .'^^ *r^ ^ ^ C/!^ ^^^ 



Digitized by 



Google 



( \rr ) 

<^ cj9 v^ r* ^ f?y cT* ti^ *^ *^jf- 

^ *^ ^ j^ ^^ ^^\ S ^\i\ j^ ^^ i 

tsj^ .^ib,^ 1/ !U jjfcb <-. LJi f^\ JJ ft^ 
jIa« U^ 4^j$ ^1j- <^ ii>;^ ^-\ «;««L ^ 

4^ -«' ^ V ^V yr*>T d^J C^l ^ ^j^ 

^ jj i ^ly ^*«*sj V^ >J{ j^ ^ ^jB-" <j^ 



Digitized by 



Google 



( \n ) 

Jfi ff ^ *^3* *e^ •'k/ *4!>^ ^ ^J -•*** 

s^J y 4(tjj^ '^'^^ -'''^ ^ ^i ^ \J^J} ^:^ 

^ k/!? i^j ^ v^yj ij^ ^} *y>* ^ ^ 

j\^ *- jU. ^ b S— *«* 
,j^ ^ tfC >, ^ / -}]; jf ^j ^ j^/ 



Digitized by 



Google 



( ir- ) 
s^ ^j f •*/ f^ ^ tfJjJ jj< \a^ *^* *ff»f' 

cr* i^ 's^ u-'j «^^ cr*5- -»f^ J^ «-^js-A 
J^U ^W ^ ^j^ ^^ji «^ Afi\^- *^ jj /T ^ 



Digitized by 



Google 



( ^r^ ) 

cr* •-r-s?' «*j) / wW fe>^ *- V**^ -»^ «ft^ >r^ 
JU ^ .jj/f- Jytjtijti- dl»- i&^l> J\ a4 J^ 

i^ ^)» J»* j^jj^^/i «-s*^ 
ji tojyj/ fcl^ tt)8* «?-'l/ 4 '■^ <^ "^^ 

j(»^ ^ c>a- «i/ *^>* J cA* J *M if 



Digitized by VaOOQlC 



( »rA ) 

j(^ JLjJJl uv*(< jaJj ^ ij;^ «_j|^ jj oUw ^J bi 

^,y U^ ^rU la ^ Mtf i/ (•*-« ^^^ 
jj' er* *^/ <J" / ir' y -^ ^ *- i/-*VJ 

os^ ^-r^ Af^ i^.j^ j^ '^ ^ jjj^ 'jtP-i 



Digitized by VaOOQlC 



( ir* ) 

^ Sr^'W ^ jV crl U«^ W /' v^ % 
^^^ <^} uTJf ^^ / *«^y^ S <;V^ Jij^^ 

ij. u\ vP* '^jy W^ erf* *??:>? '^.je- i /"^ 
u>iV i*^ -tL j^ J^ J« c>iy'>f Jji Jj ^ c^ 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



( ^"^ ) 

ttJ^ «e>» fiJ* JO;- Jl,^ «A«« J WljlU J(, ^l 

y^ Ava-.y ^y. ^ ^j J^ ^ ^ W^ (»^ 

LT^J, 3 LTt^]? ^ <^ Ujf^ ^/^y^ ^^'J L5^ 

J- 

J^ J^ v^V 7^^ <?*^ / *V- ■-«^ 5^ ry i^ 

^^y.jifis ^ «;> Jib {j;,^. ^I> «^ *Ujb 
l>^^ **^V; ji */;*>W J v//«W ur^^ V ^J ^ 



Digitized by 



Google 



( Jfr ) 

^j,*AJ 4-. C-*w j^j j^ ^ fjA^ ^\ j^ 
JV i^ H— y;-^ ut-i, <^ tS^ i ^ LJJ 

JJ j\P i^'^ ^^ i^ Oy>i ^\} S ^.^ jj\ 

«f^ J* cjiff J^ urr* *^ry «^V «^ t^liJJ 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



( irr ) 

u-y j^ tt>!» <?^ /y ttT" J'^si J jV >4" 

*=^ ij^ ^/ J^ if* f:f S S&^*V- -tf^ "^^V 
-^ OS» tfi» ttTJ* gf^lr* ^J '^ J i}^^ '«»?' 



Digitized by 



Google 



( in ) 

^"^ ^f J u^ *r»J^ ^J. ij^ A 
^^^ ^.^ £a ^ \4j jib }li\^\> 4^ j3< 

j}j^^\ (^ L> ^J[y^ J?f tiU-JjO^ K ^*3 
^^ ^J JuaJ j? ^J^ iuL^\ J^ jLJ ^j^ «^2> 

^^'^ ^ i:fi^ Jy J3^ f^ v/s-^ (*y V^*^ 

CIS* 6^ ttTJ^* *^-;^ y* r; ^/^ <i»'r" ^ jy^ 



Digitized by VaOOQlC 



( ir» ) 

«^ jcifil i jj^ tfJ^ 4^ «y>y» «,--»- vj' ^ 
yfj) J ^ j>^ ^ y^ r^ fi*^ '^ t>^^ 

J fJSf^iyiili ,^ VWU- jyA ^^\ Aiii\ *U 
(j)lh<9«9)Uk ^t (<<» ^y*^ ^/M^\ u«<aav« «aiu 

uJ}i> ti^^jT tc-^ j\ <»b ijuly ^ tJi* Lf 



Digitized by 



Google 



( tn ) 

i/f*^ *-^ w^ j'jiJ v>4^ ^j' sfi* *-»*'j «i^ y ^ 
vT j,1 ^?^ ,j;^ ^U ^^ cu,^ -«^ tf ^ij^ 

J'*> i:;ef^ u;V« / JP ^y. jj^ ^ cfi^ 'V^ u;V< 

£io .wJ ^T ^ J «>ju» ^£^ 'i^jj) / ^^^ i 

i«jl^ ^ jJijt ^^^ (JU^* i Yi^ ^W ll&U 

Ji^ tlAi^b 1|0j ^^ jciit: li ^U ^ji^ 'u-] 



Digitized by 



Google 



( ll-^ ) 



\r 



^^t.> cyUf t**^ -^ r^ '^'^^ "ift^ '^ «,?«*<* 

^^ /iU. ^ / cJb ^^ CJj^ taJUft ^L^U 



Digitized by VaOOQlC 



( nv ) 

«^y «;?• «ie;^'f -^ v/ tt^ c^ iiJ^ (^ M 
«V j^ '^M tot^ V^ «s^y «0-r> ;9^ Al>V 



Digitized by 



Google 



( H1 ) 

JX^A^ Jj\^ 'ji\ ^^ t^f^cf, y/'^J J0J\U 

**-!» er* «i;^ ^"^si **-V ij \i<i fif^ yf j^ 
LiJ j^\ ^^ ^j^ U«^ jBOaJ If ^\ ^ J/ uuJLSU 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



( l»* ) 

\8^ Ir**^ j^ i^j* err" t-J^ "^ -s/ *^l^^^ 
^J^\ S %t \j^ ^ <^ ^ t)yi ;.*dV ,^. 



Digitized by 



Google 



( ll»" ) 

^, <^ J-?» ^j^ j> ii^ 12^ W ^y «?• ^'i 

^^t ^ cl-< *iA» > m VU V-^ W »-ai 

i^ u j / 4^ y jj ^ j|j} ejjy ^1;* «a^ 

JU ^U5 fiW^ / ^I'jUj j^ i^,j^«i<^V<> Vi^ 

jii J ^ ^, (^ i J- j>t ^^ \»V V >W 



Digitized by VaOOQlC 



( nr ) 

t^ t^m 4|£;l<iUt-iU jjl Jis ^ jj^ j^ ui^l 

«>> V j^ ^sff c^j'/ *-si ^ W V «^!> 
I^mJi jjl tf> t&J ii^T jVrf l^ «>mj. (^1 jj' tj«> j^ 



Digitized by VaOOQlC 



( nr ) 

«/ ^^ uV- > **<{ jj' v/V>* 

j>j< ^^ uf «^^ tL<:^ t^ ^ y ««*;{ 
iJ)^>«^ jjl t^ J j^jli j»j< j»l& jjV ^j S yp» 



Digitized by 



Google 



( HI ) 

flUli 4^. <%li> <iy»*- J^ i^ ^ *^^ ^ >^ 
*r* •* 01^^ »M»Urt ^ ^CU ^\ V' «^ ej9f . 



Digitized by VaOOQlC 



( H- ) 

jii^i ,^ s!^) .j0>h^ 4^U^ «W|^l ^^ ^j ^j 
i ig* fi \^ -% vrt-' '^ wr'- tt«* ^ j{ 



Digitized by 



Google 



( tM ) 

«<'" *Ai jf>» t^ 'js^i W J>* ^lr^ i^^ *^ 
«-« ^tf y ^ 'iJ vW er* «?^ tt>5«' **^J* 

^ t^ 4 UJJ» W^ C9f / o' tt>S* ,cJS*«?^ 

/ jMiT «Jte ildi. S:J JV «ftS> l&v^ 

JL>^ / !>^ i^s!^ M *^ r*'' J V^- <'»9i ti>< 



Digitized by 



Google 



( 1*A ) 

^jH /^ \a^: «^ "s-^J *^ ttjs*' *>i^ "^ 
^ f}^ J w-*l;J Ji' V^ ^ jj^ ¥ «--;>> jj< 

U^ a;-- ^l^ il^t ^ ^ ^ ^^ OJ^I cjV 
jjj ^j5 S9 A JJ^ e)f iwUdJU j»K cr- i 

^^ ^\j^ U^tilU ^\ ^ «^ ^ ^t Jamt^ ^ 



Digitized by 



Google 



( l*>' ) 

J^Cf ^ S^ fc^ 4^1 ,ift^ iiiit<!h 4 
i j^JS i ^ \^ ^ i^j tr: <^^ 






Digitized by 



Google 



C rM > 



eM^Ui X (i^ -,%* ^ ^ j^ t4ttV 

j{, ojt j^V ol«u» / ti^l /^ ^ <M** ^H*« 
W Jif* tya^ «i;^ ->}*? waJ, ^^ ^ j/ 4- 



Digitized by VcjOOQlC 



( 1-^ ) 

e>9» »^ err* **-^i l/'^Jj' ft*' cT* *^J '^f'-' 
48^ j-iLul jjj ^jtj \S fk f t^\- toi^ (j^J 

jji \A^ 4->b J ;^ uu(> jCii- /as ^ ^.^..aU 
*^ <d«> uj9«i (^ i^ m!«- ^ c^! ^ ^^' *^ 



Digitized by VaOOQlC 



i \'f ) 

»^j ^^^^ U:^ ^^ jj ^joj^ ^^^ u^ wj; jf 

» 
^ UJ^'j^ i'^ *-^ *??" ^^ '^J^'^ ^ IJ^ 

J— ^] «^ Jjf» ur^ c^** «aJ5' J'J^ «-^ id'j- 

j^ '^j^ tf ^ */**>« -^ t/ ly» V3, i/f- 

*i>«** «^^ ^ jt**i^ <ij^ ^J^ A 6i^ A 
is^il j^ ^ u:^ 4- (•>» ^/ trey jj' <dV«* 



Digitized by 



Google 



( t*r ) 
(^ !^ <^ fill?- v^ «- v^ ^ V «// j^ 

t^ '»'cA< J?- -^ tri^ ^ «-^*-*i' v/* A) ^ 

^ «>?• <!ty -vrj*^ *-i^ <ij** v*- j^*^ ^^jJji 

* 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



( »*r ) 

U-' c->U- ^j< «f? ^^ Ui- j^ j^ «-• cu)W 
(^^ a^^ c^y^ -^ L5^ \5S* ur* *Vr 



Digitized by VjiOOQlC 



( IM ) 

jj< J=5 e^ '^^j-' crl ^ vVt? y, wj^-^ 

fit/ u>V cJ^ uVj i***? •/ *- "^-^^ »:»** 
oj^jt^ jy\ cyjJ ^i jju» J J* <MJ-» ft«ia<*« *u«* 

j/a* ^ u-^U ^J i \i^ ;j\ Ui«{ e»S ttje* 



Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



( !♦* ) 

^si er!^ *^ :.r^ *i^^ )^- ^ w\ ti'^ }^ i 
J3^ 4ij** -tr IK- Jt**li ,jr* c»i«> J^V 6J^ 

9 9 * ' ^ 

'^^j Cjilip^ ^ 4^U ^y ^^ ^^ J^^ ^ 



Digitized by VjjOOQIC 



( ^^ ) 

J:^ \a^ \;f^ ^^ ^ <^^''^^ ^^^ A ^t^ \^} 

JoiJ ^^ mIa6 ^ \^ ^^ C^ J^ 



Digitized by 



Google 



( ^^ ) 

«y;-i^ Ja-j, ^[ ^ ^b IS ^/jl Jj\ y^ <^ 

^jSridj Ifejud Jo^\) ^ f^y*^ j^ u«ij1ojb ^> 
*^ ;y >^ urf* «^ s?H^ J?" jJ^ "^-^ Jj' 



Digitized by VaOOQlC 



( ^v ) 

i H^ li>, (V^J d^J ^5oJT ^\ j^^ f\J^ 
y* S ^ j}^ V** (yJ *^^ *1^< J^lr- «^ j1;» 

J: y\^ y<d j»u; y» i J: 5jj^ u; i-u*: jy>.. 



Digitized by VaOOQlC 



C 11 ) 

U^J^ J Jei ijae v-*^ •-e *^/^ ^J *Ai^, 
*^ ^ -^ i^ V^^ •^-^ ^-^ "^^ ^ ^ 

f^ ->y /r > iV ftje- ^ ti/ J^ u3^ (^ 

jh u^a w^'i r-^ '^-^ ^^ *^' r^ i^ 



Digitized by VaOOQlC 



( t* ) 



n 



Ji» tXrilJl^ tMur* sA»> ^^ 



Digitized by 



Google 



( tl- ) 

^j ^ *3> ''^J «- oP «^ f^*-* -^ ^ 4 

d# 't*^ tfB^ <^ S eM'* «^ w!. ^Pil J^ 

JAJ, j>i ^ ^ 4^y j)\ JS^J JUj-1 «^ 

J%. d^ ^J 1^ ^^ K/i *f J vj^ W i 
¥ tjV«^ 'sjj;**^ ^y cyUy S ^ ^^^ ^ 



Digitized by 



Google 



( ir ) 

• ' tWdj*?" or* V«> «e-» ^/^Ij* 

f3^ l/ C> C^ ttJB^ wl^ -^ •« "^ 

^j^)^ ^\ e;jj/ uh ^ J^ ^:fi^ i^ Jji^ 

^\^ JJ c:^ ^We^ ^U^U ^ MjJ^j jyi ^ 

/\ ^ t^ t4^ VrJy UU^ J^ *5;4f / aJ^ 



Digitized by 



Google 



< ^f ) 

^ («ueU& ^J Jii\i j} Ask b»V^ <hS i^ '^ 

,a^JMt^ C^ t^SJy^yr- vh^ ^ ^^ tU «- 
«^^fi li^ i edj; ^jj ^ J: »i;i'jf uMi* 

^ tl^J ^Ji <^^ p \^ ^ -^ J *"-•* 

er*»;f «^!> «»*;{ "^ri v/- ^I/^ J-^f J^- M ^ 
Mbj .91,1 t^jU» y^ u:-«S^ s?>-T.i\«^ |.jU« 



Digitized by 



Google 



( 11 ) 

^ S ^^ Ui f^j ^ f^ J ^^\/ J ^ 
^fyi\i Oj* jj\ ts^jf. jJu CSJ;, ^^ y^ ^ 

•i^' y» Ji^ tfs* «?Jji 4lA< ui^l *- «^V jr* 



Digitized by 



Google 



( V ) 

utj^ tjs* <^j* trj* ^j^ ufi^ ^^? «»A» j^ 
««• >M»\ is^ jfl^ J* cu^ / i£ijy> ^J tP 

^ ?/-»^ «;sf c<e« j»j» i/ ii>5' eii?*; "^ J^ 



Digitized by 



Google 



( ^1 ) 

*^ V ^ ji' -s^V '^*-b / ^ ^^T i ^^ 

^\ ^ j»y i^t V**;? J}^ cJ9* irsyr*^ "^^ ♦■*-»« 
c^j6 -M^ ./^ u,^ ^ ^y i^ *--* 4a>r*- 1>5»* 

N 



Digitized by 



Google 



( M ) 
J^ifJ ^ •**-* A tti^ ,/{^ 1 »/i 

^ a^ iM, ti'^ j!^ fr x^ *i J*- -^ e#b? 

d*V ^ i? tlj* «iif J err* *^V Jsr ^ i/ »J 
U^ ^ «iU ^A.* *»iU< ^^j ^ 4i$^ ^ 

if* *^ ziJ^ ^ ^ '^^ *^ ^ ^^ i^ 

^ ttjs* <!«ir -<ij'^ <^ r^^ ^ *^'jy *i^ 



Digitized by 



Google 



( ^ ) 

^J j»' ^ (Tji ,/ •>>«» b;?*J?j* U-] cie» 

tt^ <?^ \^^ j^ C* «t* f? ^ ^ .Hrs- 
«J[>* (iisf t*^ .«^ ' JV^ j^ c;J«* *^ i/:^ Ja-V^ 
u>W *^ Vt^** / •>}« *»5 e>** is>^ iof* d^ 

« / 

Hf f^yi «5— ? J v^ i/ ^>> j^ ^ xa^j / V*^ 



Digitized by 



Google 



( A1 ) 

k»> vW»> w\ crj»^ ^V ^ ^ ^^ / >*^ 
^eir' «/ *i>j?- >t J^ *-«• 'r'J^ fir* s^c/ 

te-gr^ sft» ^,iji» j$ Ci\ cyU ^ ^j8^ 
ttTJ* *?«*^ »/ <^ ^si c;s«» sf/ •- U-< >J^ 
^. <jwW i»-l>rf ^j1 ^;Urf t;-:^ JUj JIs- j!>1 

k)^ Jjji Wkj *-• w!;f**si JJ* t^ r^ J!>^ »/ 

(•y '« ^ vr c>s* fi'J y^ ^o ^\ isS^ V 



Digitized by VaOOQlC 



( ^ ) 

« * 

»/Wi{ ^)» «»*• J^ «^ ci; 5^V yr *^ ^ i 

H «>»• ^ *^ «i/ «^' j» vJ/» bV tj^" c>** 



Digitized by 



Google 



( ^ ) 

tj^ «t5J Ji/iV >J \j^ tff\^ ^ A^ ^tj« 



Digitized by 



Google 



( -^ ;) 

^ J^ sa^ Jo e>*»;*?vr*- -«^.'^' J -^ / 
^f^ ^ u-v V* i^^ >^ J1>»-VJ^ lys* 

«jj$j_ 4^, tKU ^\ y^ j^. ^,U; ;j,rv ^\^ 
c^T >/ wy »^. Ws- / >i J (Jf '^ «:a^ 



Digitized by VaOOQlC 



( ^r ) 



Cnj L^}A \^j^ J^ to>^ <^ «4^> 
i . u^ji ir^V cfiT'' wM ■_ J^ji cj^^ 

*^^ t/y' t^ Cj<*" *■«-«* cl^ ^ -^"^i j^ 

<^y «^ V' ttJS* <JHf*; Jj' «iA "-^ i/*f* «S^ 



Digitized by 



Google 



^ l^^wVif*^ *Jj# i^ k> iJ^ A 1/ ^I>* 



Digitized by 



Google 



v/ (^ >tt;s>«j c«>* V* ^b *;»V <>!>• jj*** 
eje -^ V J!j' V cPi^ '^HJ j^ J^ A i^> 

«d .^JlbJ j^ %ja;i(;i& (^fiM V tit ^^\^ a/f^ 
i ^,J M e- -*/«»!»■ iAjS*? ^/S r^'jit 

«-* <4^ (iis* "^ ^ ■**-^ i'^ ^r* y -^ V :«^ 



Digitized by 



Google 



( VI ) 

y^ er- ^^h M ^ i-r 1>* J^v J-6 ji, 

^4^ JagU i--f *,V2|? Vs^ V*^ jV \t«> -6 

jy* A M -^^ ^ <Wa «:-J^ t/»V j^ ^ 



Digitized by 



Google 



( VA ) 

^^ti:, J ^\ ii^i ^ uCj ^ ^-u ,y-* 



Digitized by 



Google 



.( VV ) 

•J H^ C4 A^t^^V (♦W^ ^ v-r^ Jl^^ ^^ ji-f. 

• / 9 f 

wW* ^y 1^1 ttT?* ^ *^ ^"^ SC^ /'^ crf*-n-^ 



Digitized by 



Google 



( VI > 

ri^ ^jV V^ "^^^ wS -^ »/ ^'^ liTsf /, 

U*' V-'' V*. 4^ "^^ ^ -J^ «:« ^ JT* M" 
cV" ji ^^ 'Jlij** >V je u>V e^:f *j 'd^^ 



Digitized by VaOOQlC 



( v« ) 

J t^ t^ Jit liS) y»- V^ J- «-^i i^* ^ C^ ^~ 

^ ^^ .jIsmiI j^yk y«U. ^^ Lit ^U \^ lUjb- 



Digitized by 



Google 



( Vf ) 

\0^ S ^^ Jii \j^ iP^j !-»«. y^ ^\hji] ^^ ^t> 

«-* JP J'^ c^ ^ jj' V^ irjki^ *r^^ i/**^!'^ 
^/^ A ^h f^j ^A ^^ ^^ ^ heAW ^-^y 



Digitized by 



Google 



( vr ) 

^\f jji tjf^ ^^ y,yo S >-»/> -v^ e)S* «?*; ejs* 
w^ ^r* / u^ j^ tijy^ j^ <i/i K^ ^j^ iji^ 

tjj *dijtt lii^ ^Ij <i wi^y'*- jj' ■\J^ ji c/y^ 
y?^ us<i err* »^lb !;CH» Jj' u^^ J^^ i^>>y t/ 

(j;^ ^ c^ ^ u} J^^ <^J ijsV lifsr' iO^^, *Jr» ^^ 



Digitized by VaOOQlC 



( vr ) 



9 9 f 

^^ ^^j^ ^ ^^-^ 4/-* ^y ^ ^^ ^4^ j5^ 
Mi ^^ J J^ j^^ "^^ ^ ^^-^ r^ 

c^;^ J^ j^'' ^ ^s* s/^-(^ >. j'^V ^j! 

* » 9 

9 



Digitized by 



Google 



( vt ) 



Digitized by VaOOQlC 

J 



( V- ) 

uXf fct^ cr!»^ «^^ j^ ^ d^ us^ o» 

9 

tt)V- »/>* JVr^ jt^ -e S-^ '^ «-• jf* J^ tP 

Ai jj' sA* ->j^ ^V jf>» j^r* ^ JV 6- j^ 4^ 
^ir \^ ^^«-i*. O^ jj^j «ui ^ lUl^ <^ 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



( li ) 

*^y «^^ ^y cr^ tf^y / «-r!i ti^' *^^ v** 
i^ »iv *??^ «- J>* **VJ 

V Ss^ ''U'* cff* «i^>; '^ tr' cr*^ vV 

^\ J «J Wy iLr-^ V j^ ty>\j V;i* ^,;at-* ^ 
ur>^ 6:?!/ ^> ^>' '^ ^^-^ Ur* J^ ^ 

» ' * ' 



Digitized by VaOOQlC 



( 1A ) 

9 

A?^ i^Lf^ V «>r* Wj y' 4/^ j*^^ v^ *i y 
j;^ ;:^ <i^ A^^ -^ 4^^ c;H^y^ J}^ ^ u-] 



Digitized by 



Google 



( IV ) 

«-*•>«? 6- i4j^\?. J^ UU^U^ J4 ^ j\f. ^ 

uj<* jJ^ (^ J^ }ih jWj ii/'^ -^ <^9. J^ cr:* 

yjj^ i»ui «^ ^ ti^ y j.i y;-^ jjjiij y^ <?v?*** 

6- vV 6"^ j^ "^ u- ttT^ 6i>l ^atf* / <^ 
'ji^i u- wV JJ^ U>^ u^ vV ^ ul JJ^ V'L; 

/ , ^ A 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



( n ) 

us* wji J «? £. Jj' "^ JJ^ i/ «W? trr* «^^ 

4ia/ *^' j^Ki «A^ jU j^ «- "^ ttis^ wV^ 
'^a ^} ttr' 4t)S* U-' iji^ ^^ <s5/«* 6-» ^^ 

y^^:^iat¥ ti^ jj^ (/ ^/ ttjs** tfi* i^ 
^' j^ ^ ^ <^ ^^^ Jr<^ 1^ J^ ) M 



Digitized by VjiOOQlC 



^ J»y fcl^J ji^ ttT^ 6i« c;-* L?yV ^r ©«^' 

Ji\ ^ jj^ j^ljjifc ^jt Ul ^ ^jJ u^l 1/3 

» 
«aAj(w Wj^ jj^ ^yW ^L S ft*-» «^ 4^/^ 

]/3 ir i^y ^^j ^y*» tfjbj, ^y ^ C:^ ^y ^^ 

(•^. -e i/ **>,/ t^T jj< ^^ \J^ by t^- .y 

9 9 

^^JHi^j jj\ ^ Ji*. Kil) ^^ ^ y ^^1^ 

Lit ^ e^iSj Jt^y tP^ *^ *^J <^ \rV J>^ 
^ c;»» ^i;;** cT* J*^ ^ (iT^t) U^>. 'i ^ 



Digitized by 



Google 



( ll* ) 



lyj ^j4 U-i^ j_;-l ^^ J\jj u^je ^ liJ/^LA 

Jii .^ ^y< jj^ tfl*. (^/ J- b 4IL ^^i*; 

u/j) wW j<i «- J'e^^ ^:^>y w*-r 



Digitized by VaOOQlC 



< ^r ) 

-i^ \r9^ ^'^ ^js* ffi^j c^]ipa-it j^ -IJu ^ 
^ ^^J* iXiiX^ jj\ Us jj\ C^ 4jj^U ^^ 



Digitized by VaOOQlC 



( T' ) 

^ w»?'> 9 tP/» ,/ ^j^ tt^sf' sJ/ «5f! JJ< 
^ K^ j:^l /^ v/ «^ >i/ ^ 4U^, 

«^ tt;5j>» 4/ Jj^ /J ^^^ Ji' ttnJ» *6 
fS^ la-iifc ^^ e>S d** ^ tA* e-M-U. ^^ 



Digitized by 



Google 



( II > 

^"^ ^a!^ ^^ S j»^ t/.] !;-• jj^U. ^ 1---^ V 

^ *J^ ^^si ^1 > ^i^ jXiJ^ cii:i».>b -z^ 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



(V ) 

f / » / 

J u^< ^5* c/V ^fJ ^j j^ ^ c^ ^ *a^ 



Digitized by VaOOQlC 



( iT ) 

-k*" -T-/^ ^<> ^fJ' ii»6 «:-* / JS Jei? ^ 

H- *ij^ tf*r- ^5if ^])e JV ^/ ^"J^ j > ^y J 

^^ tCaJ i/-^ tAsi *- "i^ i 4^ ,af* «>W' «^ 

^^/ U yl jj^ ^Uj t;-l ^j(l .>t-.t yjg;, u;* *h' 
err* i'J^ S A ^ \/*^ '^J' s**^ V <* Ir*^ 



Digitized by VaOOQlC 



f » 

^ ijt^ ^ :*••'<>'#• -»•*** ^ itfi* J^ ^ 

.**-« 'VWi? J^ -iV /^ *<»!»^ l/ M>W^ 

^ W» «-iC teJ**^ ure* «i^ ^^t^ u*' 

jf^ A ttje* ,«> :4<^ J?- e- (J* «^ wly-*^ -*»!»{ 
^y j]^ U^ j^^ "^ ^ 'Vrt^ ^-2^ ^e* C^ 



Digitized by 



Google 



( ^ ) 

/ 

Jt> ^ M ^ cr- uA^ »^ '^s^ V A^/ 

1^ w^ Jj' i sa<^ 'r^^ ^ <i/^J4 -^ 
l,j V3 j$ ii^\ »bob j[^t «i^ J/ ^ 

f * 

tjjjb ^ cJ^ j^ j^ V ^^ (*J^ ttj*p *^j^ 

I 



Digitized by 



Google 



( el ) 
•^ erf* «i^ *-• WJ**^ «^ iAp* '■i!-^ ^ ^J^ «^ 

tj^ <^ ^^ 4 j'^y- ^ "^ "^^ *a^ "=-^ 

«i»^ t*r i^ wv^ err* trr -^ u^V «5 1;j 

\h- ^jy v^-»*? ^y i^ *J^ *-^ j^lt!/ 

/ » 

^OU U^i J<A j,\ ilJjye ^\ ^ t^, ^J *^j 

^j^ C^ (icJh ^b ^^ ei;*^^ u^'^ ^:^^> 

f . 9 9 

'^y j)^ 'd^ uV^^ L/t^^ ^^^^ / 'VF* y^ V 



Digitized by 



Google 



( u ) 



^ JmJ ^j ^^ j^ J ^^ ^5j|^ ^ 

^Uj tt^y j^^ ^j-;. 4/yh J-»U ^5AJi. 4.::-al|* 

U^ j!i* 6*«1 6*1;^ W^ ^y 6^ e-;«>^ C^I^W 
ti>l,W ^l j^ j^ j^li e* J,^-^ uuj* tiff 



Digitized by 



Google 



( «^ ) 

«-» yj^ \4^ ^^ \J^ V^. *^'^ ^ C-^UJLo 

4^^ j^ \j^ *^jy^ M^ J^lr' ^ "^ ^"■^^*->- 

f 9 m 

*^=^;tf>' «-* cJ^*> ^ ,^^ / -V^ -^^ ^J ^\ii 

^ 6- t/^M u-^ / ^*^^ ^^ ^ ^) j3\ s5^ 



Digitized by VaOOQlC 



( «r ) 

cT* «^> <^ t*^ »^ ttJ** *?/ ttJi/^ \> c^;-^" 

9 9 

«^r 'ry- "i-^ erf* v/« y. j<^y, ;>> ^j- 
6^ ^/-*{ ^y^^ ^Ir* ^V jj' ^^ j^ U^j^j^y 

^ ^ ^ ^jj\ ^g.^ cy,je liUJ \^ 
^.•J *-' rri^j C^ C^ jf^ ^ ^-U j^ UU 



Digitized by VaOOQlC 



( er ) 

J* «e^ J ^y S} t^ «-*^ ^ u^ sj^ 
^ c^T ^o; »i j^ iJ^ W«> •^ «JkaJic >Jk»l£ ji 

•?:/^ c^* <j* i*^ t>V" <^ r^ <^ «-^ tr' -^ 

|*j)«« m ^ ^J ^ iJ>i\ij>i ^ ,i^ ,J^ Jie 

JJ^ ^J* 'i^ Ae 1;^ *^ '>V «;** u^ <^ e*' 
*-!^ tr*- j^-^ Vju;*' ttjs^ -t^^ *H' /^J^ *} 

ii^y ^^ lJy» j,^ j^\ u4; ji c^l ^5^>• i^ d^V 



Digitized by 



Google 



( el ) 

UU \i\) ^ j)^ J>\ }} j4J fc)\ej ^p cHr yj^ 

Si^ Ijfc jij- Jbj. ji{ jji \kj \j4 ^ ^\^ i^ 

U-^fc-t ^ ^jJi ^ ^J jj,yU ^ ^^ «^ (Jy 
^, f} ff Mj^ u;-^ J>> «^ 6?-»l; u^' (^V^l 

u^^ Cjv?- ^ j^ ^ J-^ Ci^\ ^jU «.v«^ 
i/^ t^. \J <ij^ *^^ iO^ U-^ ^.e^ <^^ 

J^ ^ 4s 4/^ <}^ 4^, t^.b^^ ^'^jrci' 



Digitized by 



Google 



( *• ) 

tt>y^. />/ «^ J''" ji» j/ ^:/ <iA ^o9\ y 3'^ 
>V* «- u;£ j -f^^ y >*> ^Je^ j^ ^si^ ti5b > 
J^jt ^ 3^ ^ uy^ -f^^ y j*^ ji^ L5^ '^*^ 42A-»*> 
^' /-6 ji cjiJ -^^ y -J*^ ^5^ ^ v/ ^^^ 

> ^^^' j^r- *5^V 4 ^ !/ s&^ ^.^ 



Digitized by VaOOQlC 



( •'^ ) 

ii^V u-i^ ci§i t,u, ^^ ^\c, ci:si ^^ 

«^ •aV ^i^ ^ ij?* e;* «^ s5;V i^ V;*; j'j- 

* / 

il;;'^ ]j3^ vf j'j' s^ ^/ r^ Jj^ «- v/f*^-'^^ 

^ Ij^ j\j^ J, ^j^jj^ JjU ui^«». y^ u:-»j<^ 

tmy^ <a^ jW ^ ^^1 ^^ tub, «ij4 Iwi--. jjl 
«^ c>*^^ li/^*^^ v^ ^;^ tJ^ J^j ti.A ji 

K^ A ^ ^ *4/ y^ J^ ^ ^ \^ 

H 



Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



( ^ ) 

w-f** yj-^j* ta^wji <-^ «^J^ •/'>V>' •*> jlS' 

vy» «/>/ «r» •'^J** '♦^ ^ ii^ j^^ jf ihi\j\ 

^Jf- ^J^ ^ ^3^ 4P A *^ i Jtf^ J^ 
v^ «JV sa* «^ J|> 4-J> ,4^-^ «^ •y v/l? 

*a^ j/ *V ijfV «^ y^^ •€ c>9* -^ "^ -w' 
UV ^ ^i Iff tj^ ^ ^V «^ ciy ^ «A>J 



Digitized by VaOOQlC 



( '"v ) 

jj\ \aU ji^ j^» ^ bU t,,^ ^^ J ^ 
-c t/ '^V J*V «- *?l»J » «^!— >■ Jj' v/ 

,att^ *^, ,as* j^ t^ ^ c^ ^^/ ^ k^ f^j 
vi 4**^ \a^\ Off* w*>* <^ 6^y »b *1> crV*** 



Digitized by 



Google 



( '•1 ) 

^ *^J^ ^^ e>9^ w^b *^' crs* tAW* ^ J^ 
VV teiv fti3^ ^ <?} ^ «ijy r* >* r* <S 

Vf err* *H^«> 4/r« J^ VL \^ ^li «y\»U:». Jjj 
t^ 4^ 4^ (S^ (£^. bU ««« «aUj (.^^ 

urJ* ^^ J^ ^"^ •*»•> fcl^^ «- k'^VaU ^ 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



c^\ c^ iifj ^ j^y^ k^. ji9 ^t «f 



Digitized by 



Google 



( n- ) 



\ 



U-^ — «^ lU- ^U u;,^ ^ 

«-4^i J4JJ^^ 4=^1; ilii< -si ks-« ^y 

JSjyi Jlj 6if- ^ j^ <iS--^ Mj^ / j^ t^ erf* 
^ ^T^J «;?» «?6 >y erf- ^ U-' ^ \J^i 



Digitized by 



Google 



( T ) 

j^ (^jjj JLJk c^^^ ^^^ e^y^y ^^ ^!^ ^ 

» * 

s^i'J?" t/ '^l' Jy tt>9* «iiW! >»^ tt/s* <?-!; 
«a^ tiij' «>s{ idVf <^ t/*!. /«^V J*- «0-»* 

jAji ^J^i^ zJj «j jjl j|J UU ^ 4_;-1 / w'd'i jV 



Digitized by 



Google 



( i^r ) 

^ iA^\ ,j^ uu-1 ^^) t^j u>y^j}\ ^li 
» / * 

/ Jlr-' t/*^ J***? tof* K^ \^' ^/ *^ u^ 
"^^ ttjif* *?y^ 6ir-s^ -;5^ ^r^y «^ ^i^ 



Digitized by 



Google 



( '^1 ) 

jjl Jy^ >•, *^JJ^ wi? «^ M a/ l/ j'^ 
«i^ <dj» *l^«> f* *> *it»> ij|A>- J^ J^ u)'**** 
C-*V <^ ^nfi** ''^ ?^ ttjss^ tea':? tt^ <^ 

U-J «l«* <-r*"^ *e^ «''^ «s;J^ te>i>^. J* J***^ 

J^ -« j^< erf V^'^ H-^ / ur?'''^ •^^ ttis-J 

o 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



C f- ) 

•j-iU jjl jacr ts^ Jl«* J ftJUj ^j< wVv**/ 

^ jjlfl Ac\^ ^j f}3i^j^}} <*-*-/ 
'f^ ^J ^'^ iij^ ?M 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



( ri ) 

9 9 9 

jf^ ijtf^ d^j ^a^ '^^ <^ ^j^^ ^} ^A A ^ 
(•j^ erf** ^'' **-■ '^^ \j3^ c»e* "^ V^ V" 

Jo ««4 ia-*^J^ J u-?- "^ V^«> i£-<J (Ji^ pU 

erf*' e« ^^ vi M'^ yj J^}i ^. ^ MJ^ 



Digitized by 



Google 



( rA ) 



^ / 



^^ / J^ %^ mW W* jj< utf* ^f^-i^W* 

v/lx?- .cr!^ -v^^ *Ar* ^ «?y^ *^'-' jjJ «?y^ 
**^ »/*>■ J^ s^'^ tfV Jy v/ ^ ttJ'f > 



Digitized by 



Google 



( rv ) 

j^ -Arf erf* -^ <^ ^1 \^ oS «iU ^gjjo t^/ jf^ 

J4j -tv, ^ cIa ^b ^jf' «i?/ ^j ^ <«^ 

S!^ -^ ji^ t/j er* Vy tr' A^ u-v^ <^J 
<- * • ' . 

Md>w i/ u*' «- u>Vj -^ i^ d^^ <^ ftH^«* ^j' 



Digitized by 



Google 



( n ) 



«^ i^y V 

tt^Sf J^*** J '»V' ^ S?/ W^ ^ tttf-J *i^J j*^ 

l;-' v^^ ^ kT!^ *^P i/JJ ttjir* wVj c;9 
jj\ ^^ \St e^ jiii ^^ y>. ^ ^^ ^ j^ ji 

9 9 

X^ cr^' ^ ^ii jy / U^' b?^^ ^-^-^V 



Digitized by VaOOQlC 



( re ) 
f^ ^a^ j^ l^ficAsi A J*J^V ur* J^ ^ 

^^yi «- <;** v/«* cliJi ^ y tO*** «-• C^ 
r" V err" ta^«^ «^ c>/y (♦^ *-»>*- jr ^ «i/ 

^0 



Digitized by VaOOQlC 



( rf ) 

^ J u^i^ ^ ^^T ^ ^ ^-M- ^^ ^ j^ (^^ 
Jji^ o^'jr jj' ^.si^ Jj^j}^ ^*>/ -^ 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



( rr ) 

^ji «-^ -e j^ V V i/ ^^ "-A^ j^> 

j^;^ ^ C^Lrfl C^^^U (l^lCo J^\ jj-»^ ^^ 

-*^ J^ 6f^ W^> .«- c^ ^ -^ l/ «^l>.>«^ 
<jb f,\J\ J ^^ j^j-si- j^^ 



Digitized by VjOOQIC- 



( rr ) 

<ij<f' 4^J!. A <i^ t^ -;^^ «- ^H^*^ "=-^ 
j} <# «^ 1^4** tgr> u>^^ J J^ "ir* ^J^ *^J* 

U».li 31^ 6«i(j ^jjU;, jjl ^ ^U ^1 j^ <Jj-<« 

<^^ J4^ )^\ ttjf* 1/5=* (^ c^y,*^ '^Ir 
gjt>- t^T j^UU :,j1 6^ ^ .^ <^! «,>^ 

v^ to»Mj^ w' -'^ U?- ss=-*^J i/ t*^ -s^V t^>fc 



Digitized by 



Google 



( n ) 

«^' b* •'la; uT* *s- i:a'^ ^ tr^ -^ V^ 

4--a-U C/\Cj <^TJ^ ftiyijO fc-»V-^ jj^ m);* ^ 

m!^ wV «^J ^jl ^ j^ u>^ >> erf* JJ^ 

v-jy^l j^ j^ jd ^UJ ^^^ ^ j^ C£-i^ y;^ 
vilK«<j^ocJ^ ^^•^'b (^^ '^ S^^ V ^V e)^ -^ 
6i^ ^y Af^ 4:«^*> er?^ L5«^ A-* L^y L/'j / L5*«*^ 



Digitized by 



Google 



( r- ) 

jj< usJiy ^\ ^^ ^^yj 6^i y ttr?f c^ ji^n^ 

J'V, s&^y ^j' ^J c^ ^ k/ Ji/' ry -^ 

fj^ u;.wjO fid J ^f^ j^ ^ ^U .j^ ^j^ 

^ u^J u^' tf^*> ^-^^-^i^ ^ *^^ J^ c;^ 
/y^ ^1^ S t^} oy^ JJ^ ^\ u^^ Jy 



Digitized by 



Google 



( r^ ) 

<*rJ^ L>y'^ ^ u4^ j'*^ <^ tf^ •k^^ j^y^ jIt* 

Mi 

^ J j^^ Jv ^/ ^ j^^ l;« ^^ ^ sMj- 

^<f^ ^r* J!>^ S?J?" «*^ u^ i/^ LfV ^ err 

^ J^) jj^ i> ^} ^ ^< ^^^^y^ J^ 



Digitized by 



Google 



( rA ) 

jVr «aJfj) ^/^\i ifijj u;f* ^^ jV i V 
^ *^o\i J ^^\J li^ JV2? l/J^ jj< ^T y, 

ttjsr* j*^ «^ J^ *> y dj!' /^ ft^ J j^ <*tp 
U^l i/» W** jW^ ftl^r;; «^ t-r^ j^ ^ M 

«w; u-^ »v**J «ij?^ S-*-^ "^^ j^ cr" ttT?^ 



Digitized by LaOOQ IC 



( rv ) 

jjl If taf «a5i ^ j^ .i.j*fc ^ ^^ ^^ 

fA^ j-u ^ »^ j^j^ jjiA ^ \jj<i |J^ s b-^jf*^ 

iSf^ ^^,/ «^ (•>• v/ trs-l;* "^ «« «^-!j«s^ />^ 
\J dj^ ij^ «^ cr?*' ^ «»*«{ <JJ^ JJ"^ ^ Ifi- 

J^^ iT" J^ isfijii Ui^ ^ 4fr A 'Jy* 6dV 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



( n ) 



jV 'iV^-'* *l> uA^ kT u-^ 6^ j^ j/>i>< t-*l/ 



Digitized by V^OOQlC 



( rt ) 

J ^ ^^ <^ ^ ^jA ^^ J^ ^\ 1j^ ^ ]b 

^ si^.^ b^ j^j ^^ A 4k C^ j^ J^i' 

jji ^ \S^ j\j / ^ «-* jl^T 6ij->*> j^^ ^l/ii 



Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



( rf ) 

JJi /^ jj\ v6jW. <JL»j5 j\<s^ ojb y ft^ / jV 

^ ^ j^ J^ ^^ ^\0 ^ w^Uv^sr^ ^ ^j;1 -jij 

jj< A:iy» t^ f^ fJ ^^ <^ ft«e Iflft^ ftWT e- 



Digitized by 



Google 



( rr ) 
^ '^ J3^ v/y v/ *^^^ -^ *-!^ ^ ^ *^y 

U-' -^ v/ sri*^ '**4^ <-=^ ^^J ^ *V ^y ^^ 

«^ i/^ tijf y '^ U*^ W^ ttj«* «=!>^ <Jss»» 
^ J^ «^ ^^Ifc ooJU iJ ^^1 ^ »^b j ^ y V. 

(•** v-r ^j' t/» ^V to>*- <>- «^ cr'^ 4V »/ 



Digitized by 



Google 



( rr ) 

^ !;*- JT r^ "i^^ JJ^ ^-^ »:»^ JW /J <*- 

k^, er- s?/>-«» •V .'^^ r^ JU* l^ uiU ; 
«^ ^.'^.J X^cn^ ^5«W^ «^/^JuJ^ 
e^ V** J^ ttjs^ ^y tt^^ "T- *S >» «/>* t*^ 

v/ ^ us» •s'V > uiix? y. j^^ i^ jyV *4^/ 

<^ -;{ i** hA yy «^ «^ <s^ U-' L5^ s&^ 
«^ «f i^j^ tg^ sM J^ c^ s^ >^ cnfc 



Digitized by V3OOQIC 



( ri ) 

J-f*^ «- ftvfi y^ «■=-—?- *£^ «i j^ J^ «- •ij'i 
«^ J^ jI^ cj==^ •Js?'^ u-^; crs^V cr!*'!; 

^ j\^ JgJS C^ 4-kjl^ igS jjj i*^ "^^ 

' / * - 

u:-^ .XyU «^ iiS^ jj\ ^\i^ jy\>. t^^jt 
U-^^ jW- {Jh ^S^ *^j xa>^ M^ \:fi cjs* 

J^ OS* «l;^ u;sf wjs^T «=*; u>^ ^-^ 
JV j^ j^ j^ *g^ <^^ «i/i ^yV «o/ «^ 



Digitized by 



Google 



( r- ) 

j^ ttjs* «?/ '^•^ -vf^ -vf^ «- *ij^' tt/^ us* 
*!> ^ o^J ttjs* «t;* «^ ***V* *^' i/ ^^J** 



Digitized by 



Google 



( II ) 

S^ /T 4e^ «i^. •>!<? ^ «J\w «A-yJ <->>i- 

^ra^* j« /*; fe>S «^^ • ui/ jV cnH^ /ev. 

f 'ft 

W o*- jy> ji ^y* «>^ j^ «^ «w *sf^ ti^ i/ 
urt 4f' V ««/ <^ or^ *^ '^1/9- «^^"U 



Digitized by 



Google 



( ^^ ) 



j^ V« ^^.•'P «^ <^ J^ ')'^. V" ^^ «^ 



Digitized by VaOOQlC 



4k ]J3V «- «ifl > J^ «aif J jtAi ^ ^ 
i/ J^ wS tt)-^ V *S* dl/" <?5 «air j} 

«a/^s» >s-« j.y u- ^ «A*> ttjsf '■^-^^ *// 



D 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



( 11 ) 

j^ (1% (^>- ja^ .w^ cy^ «L5i JJ ^ tl^l 
irff err* «rv^*> W «? >^y «^'^ <s!f4j S$ ^ i^y 

y V ^ «-» a^Vj ii?>fe^ V ^^ ki)^j^ ^-^^-^ 

J-i» jSV t!L»^ ^^t /*4j iJoJjJ «^.jle v^ 



Digitized by 



Google 



( f« > 

ttjk;^' J^' V «4^ «i6 uy «-f LiW> «^ 

*£^J «-**? J^ ^tj- «^ S?/ ^^Vf* «!!-*« -?-/' »/» 



Digitized by 



Google 



C «•* ) 

u>!/ 1/ 4j!V tone j^^ \J ^^ J3^ v/* «M>-^ 

ei**^' *«^ S5« W c?»* «?^ "^ ««- w>*i* «^ 

^ fcK4.>j} ^ ^ /• etf«5 ^^ «>> ^ jV 
<-»]/*• «4^ crj^ QfP i^ Kfe^ ifiAf u*^ v/* -V^ 



Digitized by 



Google 



( ir ) 

i/ V We ej^j ^r* ^xjr^ jfij Jfrrf 

vJUf»> 4^ Jl^ 4j-*, »^j »jx;i \ji4 jyj j»T y 

tai A V ^ >- ^^ L^ J^ j:?-" ^^ tt)H/^ ^ 
•e- V'' (j:?^ UJJ^ «^ e>S ^jr* Jb^^r^ ^^^^ 

c;i-* j1;V J^ V J^ <Si^ s-si> tt)^ ej^ hg^ 
<=ii; J-* -5*^ <i,V r' ^^ '^'^ ^ ^y /• cr* c^J>^ 



Digitized by VaOOQlC 



( "' ) 

A* y/' i^ -^ Jjt} j/ «J^ ^^ ttX- -^ «^ 
erf* tAL;**'V yf" «^ "^ «^ J^ *** '^^' **^ 

Jr J^ tJ^-* -^^ '^-.iJ cr^ *^ «*• '■**^ ^M 



Digitized by 



Google 



( »l ) 



^^oT cub jj\ ^ 4;)Sf*5l»- j^«V* ^ ^*i - fS^J** 

jUi ^J Affi..y>- t^ IpA Jl^' J^ «J|} ^j fji*l>r« 

CASjb S\^^\^ cylill ,j^ «-» J ^ J J j^ 
«>V ;^ J>iJ*Ji>yji^ i/ ''^ ^->^' >JJ^ v/^f 

si* n^ sfV?"' J^ ^J JJJ V «^ *^J 



Digitized by 



Google 



( '^ ) 

^\ pM, t^ uw»j <^j«5 j^ ^}4 ^ai» '^^ "^f '> 

/ o / . 

tyk ^jU« 4^ / -v^ ti>** ^}'y^3^ Ji^ S^ *-• 

^j^ ^j\ t^ t^ W y; «», ij,\«i *:-f. <>J<^ h^ 



Digitized by 



Google 



^ S^ji (*^ ,^,t4io^ J «^Wj> '■s->*f v^ <i)* 

^j "^i ^^ V" )^ <4My, <iP.y:r ^J*e h 



Digitized by 



Google 



( ^ ) 

^U» j^ u> J- ^;if jj jj ^^;*« f* >^ i/ 41!^ *- 

i/-?- M«{ «^ JJ^ Jij«* cnf* '^*r' er?« *^ «^ 
•r-sf^ jj< V V *^ Jt* *r^ <J-^ CJ** «^ *r^ 

^ tj» jj^ !b-« ,j^ j^Ud ^f & ^ ,j-* 

jV ^j< ^j^ «s6 *^'»*' *^j«? «i^> mV**:^ ens- 



Digitized by 



Google 



( V ) 
>^ 4--^U J^ ^ Jij J tii^ A^ i-r^ 

^ ^^ l_,^l# «^l^ jpi k^ \^ ll&oU ^\» l^JL ^ 

i.,.«Milu UW ••1} «»j^ A^E^i; jj^ ^ t/l;'*^ ^'^ ^ 
-^** ^Ur ^ ^U jj^ ».>;jiT JL ^-fc^ ja<f j^^ 

W*^e^^j' i/j S*Vs&s- uV A- *^ * »/* 
K cr-i*^ ^jJl jiT ,j^ «_,«-• 4ji \^ iZjKfJ^ ij*. i 

^r- cy^ *^ *!**»> ^ ^^j j-ii ^^ «i4* ^ 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



( 1 ) 

^ ^s,J^ U^ ^Ji jjl <jT> <^ ^U «^ <^ 
J c^U cy,la«)l, T^j^i ^j^^ y ^^j^ Jrr 

• / • 

^ ^ jji \LA y^^ji^ S} jO^ j*^S *t4«iV (Jlft 



Digitized by 



Google 



( * ) 

s»* ->> e^ -^y^d^^ v^ 4i^ J ^y s£Mj«' 

^ % 9 

j^y jjj «w** J k/^y wWv> «i^W «di>^ jj5 
-iy '^ J p J, i/-y '/^'W unf* ji* fttjV i^y 

j|l j^ ^L 4i^ «J ^\(^ ^jK^ u]}<>/^ J^ utf* 



Digitized by VaOOQlC 



( •• ) 

f -V^ jf' d^j ^ ^tfi* ^jy^ ^}^ *^ \^j 

4/iL^' -^ ^^ ^^f>- J^ '•^ b^ji^ urs^ 
*u. «i<y- ^1, tgS tgp4j erf* Jiy*^ <^ V ^y 

o o 

w«- ji* <J^j vjs^jr^ i^ f-T^ J4 -e^ 6".^ cT^ 



Digitized by 



Google 



( r ) 

o 

^V v:;!^* s^ ^;^^ -^ ^ J> ^ cT- 

^;-^ tLj ^ JyJ^i^* e- 1*^ •^^ ^^ us^j^ ^ (KU 

j«jT ^ JU lU (juij ^j^ \ibl|>* Uyh iA^^^a ij ^ 



Digitized by VaOOQlC 



( r ) 



I 



f 

o 

O 

o 



Digitized by vaOOQlC 



o 

O Of 

ifJcJbb \^ ^jJl ^ %J ^Jkll Alo&et ,^L^ ^joti jj3 

o 

kjH^ tA25 ^^ t/j^'ili i^.< / *->t^^ t/*< erf* 



Digitized by 



Google 



16 

— ^^ U,\ ^ ^^\4^ dJl5l c-JLj^ ^ 
«^ eJ/ jA-i — 46^ Ir'tA*'^ — «^ WJ^i<i 

II 

— «^ ^/'' j«{ / "^^ H-s- — i/ *'^ 
IVF \^x_,t^-JU 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 










n 

H t «U t-W;^ 

4JSV J3^ tijt* erf* si/ •■i-K «5-s«s^ •€ 

ir 

tiA ^ uijw^y 

If 

'f-v «J«V^. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



^ «^ oy V i 

1 

V 

ee ^J JtfA S tf-/^* 

A 

SOS* >j^^, — i/ y- «^ «Jy^^ «j:-««s^ ^ 

■ : ' '.1 

Vr ^ ^Js^^ VA%Ai ^ 



Digitized by VaOOQlC 



I 

X 

'' '^ wS Jb*-^ w jy e^ 

r 

jjl «a^ yU, JB ^^ ,j^ «sAi <^ y-s-y 



Digitized by VjiOOQlC 



Digitized by 



Google 



dUj. 



)^ i^\j imJjSjLt 



irfr 



Digitized by V3OOQIC 



By the tame Author, 
TRAVELS 

VBOIf 

INDIA TO ENGLAND, 

COMPEIHBNDIVG ▲« 

VISIT TO THE BURMAN EMPIRE^ 

AND A 

JOURNEY thiough PERSIA, ASIA MINOR, EUROPEAN TURKEY, te. 

In the Tears 1825-26. 

Containing a Chnmological Epitome of the late Militaiy Operations in 
Ava { an Account of the Proceedlngi of the pieaent Minioii firom the 
Supreme Govennnent of India to the Court of Tduan ; and a Summary 
of the Canaei and Ercntt of the existing War betvreen Ruaria and Pttiia. 

tVUh 8k0Uhe$ of Natunl HUtory, M ai me n and Cuttmuf tmd iOuitraied wUh 

1 Vol. 4to. £1, \U.6d. 



LONDON t 
rJUMTED BY J. L. COX, GREAT QOEEN CTRXET. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Digitized by VaOOQlC 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Digitized by 



Google 



Digitized by VaOOQlC 



^<^ ^: ^y. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Digitized by 



Google 



Digitized by VaOOQlC 



Digitized by VaOOQlC